In this paper, we propose a one-per-class model for high dimensio

In this paper, we propose a one-per-class model for high dimensional datasets. In the proposed method, we extract different feature subsets for each class in a dataset and apply the classification process on the multiple feature subsets. Finally, we merge the prediction results of the feature subsets and determine the final class label of an unknown instance data. The originality of the proposed model is to use appropriate feature subsets for each class. To show the usefulness of the proposed approach, we have developed an application method following the proposed model. From our results, we confirm that our method produces higher classification accuracy than previous novel

feature selection and classification methods. Anlotinib manufacturer (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is widely used as an

antibacterial in bar soaps. During use of these soaps, a significant portion of TCC is absorbed by humans. For the elimination from the body, glucuronidation plays a key role in both biliary and renal clearance. To investigate this metabolic pathway, we performed microsomal incubations of TCC and its hydroxylated metabolites 2′-OH-TCC, 3′-OH-TCC, and 6-OH-TCC. Using a new liquid chromatography-UV-mass spectrometry method, we could show a rapid glucuronidation for all OH-TCCs by the uridine-5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) present in liver microsomes of humans (HLM), cynomolgus monkeys (CLM), rats (RLM), and mice (MLM). Among the tested human UGT isoforms, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A9 showed selleck inhibitor the highest

activity for the conjugation of hydroxylated TCC metabolites followed by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, and UGT1A10. Due to this broad pattern of active UGTs, OH-TCCs can be efficiently glucuronidated in various tissues, as shown for microsomes from human kidney (HKM) and intestine (HIM). The major renal metabolites in humans, TCC-N-glucuronide and TCC-N’-glucuronide, were formed at very low conversion rates (<1%) by microsomal incubations. Low amounts of N-glucuronides were generated by HLM, HIM, and HKM, as well as by MLM and CLM, but not Selleck GF120918 by RLM, according to the observed species specificity of this metabolic pathway. Among the human UGT isoforms, only UGT1A9 had activity for the N-glucuronidation of TCC. These results present an anomaly where in vivo the predominant urinary metabolites of TCC are N and N’-glucuronides, but these compounds are slowly produced in vitro.”
“Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major cause of self limiting viral hepatitis, is associated with a robust humoral, moderate CD4 T cell and CTL response. However, key questions like the probable involvement of HLA class II alleles and peripheral DCs/monocytes in regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses in Hepatitis E remain unanswered.

“The persistence of residual symptoms after treatment of a

“The persistence of residual symptoms after treatment of a major depressive Bromosporine manufacturer episode is found in approximately a third of all cases. Definitions of partial remission of a major depressive episode with residual symptoms are either criteriologic, like the DSM, which require a defined number of symptoms with functional effect; or quantitative, with a score localized in a defined range on a depression evaluation scale.\n\nThe persistence of residual symptoms following a major depressive episode and the risk of a new episode are closely

linked as outlined in guidelines created by expert groups and savant societies as well as clinical studies done in this field. Among the risk factors to predict further depressive episodes, the weight of persisting residual symptoms may be higher than the number of previous depressive episodes. In case of residual symptoms, the therapeutic proposals rely

on pharmacological or psychotherapeutic tools are essentially of two types: nonspecific potentialization of previous antidepressive treatments or additional treatment specifically targeting each patients residual symptoms. A strong Rabusertib manufacturer consensus exists on necessity of maintaining the therapeutic efforts until disappearance of residual symptoms, this objective must be pursued in a definite and continuous way by the practitioner. L’Encephale, Paris, 2010.”
“CONSPECTUS: The unique physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and its promising applications in future optoelectronics have motivated an extensive study of its physical properties. However, a major limiting factor in investigation of 2D MoS2 is its large area and high quality preparation. The existence of various types of defects in MoS2 also makes the characterization of defect types and the understanding of their roles in the physical properties of

this material of critical importance. In this Account, we review the progress in the development of synthetic approaches for preparation of 2D MoS2 and the understanding MI-503 solubility dmso of the role of defects in its electronic and optical properties. We first examine our research efforts in understanding exfoliation, direct sulfurization, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of MoS2 monolayers as main approaches for preparation of such atomic layers. Recognizing that a natural consequence of the synthetic approaches is the addition of sources of defects, we initially focus on identifying these imperfections with intrinsic and extrinsic origins in CVD MoS2. We reveal the predominant types of point and grain boundary defects in the crystal structure of polycrystalline MoS2 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and understand how they modify the electronic band structure of this material using first-principles-calculations. Our observations and calculations reveal the main types of vacancy defects, substitutional defects, and dislocation cores at the grain boundaries (GBs) of MoS2.

Ideally, in addition to adequate psychotherapeutic treatment by e

Ideally, in addition to adequate psychotherapeutic treatment by established therapists/doctors, preparation for the upcoming rehabilitation should concentrate on helping patients lose their fear and also to shed light upon the objectives of a psychosomatic

rehabilitation with special emphasis on vocational rehabilitation. Shortly after psychosomatic rehabilitation, aftercare supports, in particular, the transfer of the rehabilitation results and reintegration into working life. However, only a fraction of the patients are reached by this aftercare offer. For rehabilitation, patients with special job problems, migrants, or long-term unemployed persons, case management is proposed, should aftercare not be sufficient.”
“Purpose: see more This paper provides a five-year (2002-2007) comparative segmentation analysis of how the Internet and dedicated health networks are used by European general practitioners (GPs) and the extent to which external factors affect their use of various eHealth services.\n\nMethods: Two cross-national sets of survey data collected in 2002 (n = 3512) and 2007 (n = 3948) have been Alvocidib analyzed. These databases provide information on physicians’ eHealth uses in

EU-15 countries, including sociodemographic indicators such as country, age, sex, location, and size of the medical practice.\n\nResults: A total of 3512 and 3948 physicians, respectively, participated in the 2002 and 2007 studies. Pevonedistat The percentage of GPs accessing the Internet or a dedicated health network increased from 64.5% in 2002 to 77.1% in 2007. Only these physicians were included in the latent class cluster

analyses performed on both datasets, yielding three segments of eHealth users plus a group of non-Internet users. Thus, the following four final segments were identified in the years 2002 and 2007: ‘Information Searchers/Average Users’, ‘Advanced Users/Adv. Users (ePrescribers)’, ‘Laggards’, and ‘Non- Internet Users’. Contingency table analyses relating external indicators to physicians’ usage patterns of eHealth services confirmed strong country differences, low to moderate age influences reflecting a cohort effect, and moderate effects of practice size, both in 2002 and 2007. Conversely, very weak influences were observed for physicians’ sex and location of the medical practice.\n\nConclusion: A positive evolution is clearly observable in European primary care physicians’ use of eHealth, mainly with regard to online medical information searches, use of electronic health care records, and (to a lesser extent) electronic transfers of patient data.

p53 expression was not observed any specimen PTEN expression was

p53 expression was not observed any specimen. PTEN expression was observed in 18 of 19 cases. DNA sequence analysis did not reveal mutations in exons 59 of PTEN in the immunohistochemically PTEN-negative case. In accordance with our previous reports, we found that observation of concomitant CD26-positive and PTEN-negative status in cases of follicular adenoma suggests a state close to follicular carcinoma or progression

to cancer, thus warranting careful follow-up. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Models-mathematical frameworks that facilitate JAK inhibitor estimation of the consequences of health care decisions-have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR Modeling Task Force reported in 2003 has led to a new Task Force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven articles presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, PLX3397 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor or dynamic transmission models; and dealing with uncertainty and validating and reporting

models transparently. This overview article introduces the work of the Task Force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these articles includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making.”
“Purpose of review\n\nTo describe the contemporary techniques used for septal saddle nose and, based on these, present our approaches for correction of a spectrum of deformity severities.\n\nRecent findings\n\nA review of different techniques currently in practice. These reflect greater emphasis on nasal structural framework repair rather than disguise and the use of autografts rather than allografts.\n\nSummary\n\nWe present our classification of septal saddle deformity, demonstrating Selleck Selisistat that this condition requires a flexible surgical approach with different techniques required depending

on the extent of the defect.”
“Dextran, a neutral bacterial polysaccharide, was chemically modified by the attachment of n-alkyl chains (hydroxy-2 n-dodecyl) through the formation of ether linkages. The extent of hydrophobic modification was high enough to ensure good solubility of the resulting polymer in organic solvents like chloroform. Furthermore, this polymer was shown to lower interfacial tension between water and dichloromethane with similar effect as to a usual oil-soluble molecular surfactant (Span 80). Submicronic water-in-chloroform emulsions were prepared using the modified dextran as the sole stabilizer with volume fractions of disperse phase up to 30%. The initial average droplet size and storage stability of inverse emulsions was discussed as a function of polymer concentration and volume fraction of disperse phase.

The effects of those mutations were determined with three differe

The effects of those mutations were determined with three different in vitro assays of pseudouridylation and several tRNA substrates. Surprisingly, it was Selleck Wnt inhibitor found that each of these components of the hPus1p

active site could tolerate certain amino acid substitutions and in fact most mutants exhibited some activity. The most active mutants retained near wild-type activity at positions 27 or 28 in the substrate tRNA, but activity was greatly reduced or absent at other positions in tRNA readily modified by wild-type hPus1p.”
“Only few selected cancer cells drive tumor progression and are responsible for therapy resistance. Their specific genomic characteristics, however, are largely unknown because high-resolution genome analysis is currently limited to DNA pooled from many cells. Here, we describe a protocol

for array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), which enables the detection of DNA copy number changes in single cells. Combining a PCR-based whole genome amplification method with arrays of highly purified BAC clones we could accurately determine known chromosomal changes such as trisomy 21 in single leukocytes as well as complex genomic imbalances of single Ulixertinib concentration cell line cells. In single T47D cells aberrant regions as small as 12 Mb were identified in most cases when compared to non-amplified DNA from 10(6) cells. Most importantly, in single micrometastatic

selleck chemicals cancer cells isolated from bone marrow of breast cancer patients, we retrieved and confirmed amplifications as small as 4.4 and 5 Mb. Thus, high-resolution genome analysis of single metastatic precursor cells is now possible and may be used for the identification of novel therapy target genes.”
“The bright blue emission at 420 nm, originating from the charge transfer transition of the self-activated SnO6 octahedron, was observed in Ca3SnSi2O6 host matrix. Bi3+, Dy3+ and Eu3+ exhibited their characteristic emission under ultraviolet excitation when these activators were doped into Ca3SnSi2O6, respectively. The emission intensity located at the blue-yellow and red region of Dy3+ and Eu3+ could be further improved when Bi3+ was co-doped in Dy3+, Eu3+ doped Ca3SnSi2O9. Furthermore, a tunable color emission, especially the white light, was realized in Ca3SnSi2O6: Bi3+, Dy3+, Eu3+ phosphors by adjusting the relative concentration of the activators. It demonstrates that Bi3+, Dy3+, Eu3+ codoped Ca3SnSi2O6 could potentially be used as a tricolor phosphor for the fabrication of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pc-LED). (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AimsTo investigate long-term psychiatric outcomes followi

\n\nAims\n\nTo investigate long-term psychiatric outcomes following antidepressant and/or anxiolytic use during an episode of mental disorder in mid-life.\n\nMethod\n\nMembers of the 1946 British birth cohort were assessed for symptoms of depression and anxiety at age 43. Among 157 with mental disorder, those using antidepressants and/or anxiolytics were compared with those not using medications on psychiatric outcomes at age 53.\n\nResults\n\nUse of antidepressants or anxiolytics was associated with a lower prevalence of mental disorder at age 53 (odds ratio (OR)=0.3, 95% Cl 0.1-1.0) after

adjustment for eight variables in a propensity-for-treatment analysis. Only 24% of those being treated with medications at age 43 were still using them at 53.\n\nConclusions\n\nUse of antidepressants or anxiolytics during an episode of mental disorder VX-770 datasheet may have long-term beneficial effects on mental health. This may be because of a demonstrated willingness to seek help rather than long-term maintenance therapy.”
“Ethambutol, together JNK inhibitors library with a macrolide, is the backbone for treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium disease. However, at the standard dose of 15 mg/kg of

body weight/day, ethambutol efficacy is limited. In addition, susceptibility breakpoints have consistently failed to predict clinical outcome. We performed dose-effect studies with extracellular M. avium as well as with bacilli within human macrophages. The maximal kill rate (E(max)) for ethambutol against extracellular bacilli was 5.54 log(10) CFU/ml, compared to 0.67 log(10) CFU/ml for intracellular M. avium, after 7 days of exposure. Thus, extracellular assays demonstrated high efficacy. We created a hollow-fiber Selleck Dorsomorphin system model of intracellular M. avium and performed microbial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies using pharmacokinetics similar to those of ethambutol for humans. The E(max) in the systems was 0.79 log(10) CFU/ml

with 7 days of daily therapy, so the kill rates approximated those encountered in patients treated with ethambutol monotherapy. Ratio of peak concentration to MIC (C(max)/MIC) was linked to microbial kill rate. The C(max)/MIC ratio needed to achieve the 90% effective concentration (EC(90)) in serum was 1.23, with a calculated intramacrophage C(max)/MIC ratio of 13. In 10,000 patient Monte Carlo simulations, doses of 15, 50, and 75 mg/kg achieved the EC90 in 35.50%, 76.81%, and 86.12% of patients, respectively. Therefore, ethambutol doses of >= 50 mg/kg twice a week would be predicted to be better than current doses of 15 mg/kg for treatment of disseminated M. avium disease. New susceptibility breakpoints and critical concentrations of 1 to 2 mg/liter were identified for the determination of ethambutol-resistant M. avium in Middle-brook broth.

How these bacteria evade immunity while maintaining inflammation

How these bacteria evade immunity while maintaining inflammation is unclear. As previously reported, P. gingivalis remodels the oral microbiota into a dysbiotic state by exploiting complement. Now we show that in neutrophils P. gingivalis Ulixertinib disarms a host-protective TLR2-MyD88 pathway via proteasomal degradation of MyD88, whereas it activates an alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway. This alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway blocks phagocytosis, provides “bystander” protection to otherwise susceptible bacteria, and promotes dysbiotic inflammation in vivo. This mechanism to disengage bacterial clearance from

inflammation required an intimate crosstalk between TLR2 and the complement receptor C5aR and can contribute to the persistence of microbial communities that

drive dysbiotic diseases.”
“Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. In this study we show experimentally that Arctic sea-ice DOM can stimulate prokaryotic activity when added to surface waters. Time-series and dose-response enrichment microcosm experiments were conducted, in which first-year, sea-ice DOM was added to surface waters from Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea-ice DOM concentrations in this productive region averaged nearly 2000 mu mol l(-1) in May 2011 and 2012. selleck screening library The abundance, activity (high [HNA] versus low [LNA] nucleic acid cells) and apparent size of surface water prokaryotes were quantified along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) concentrations during the experiments. Following a 4 d lag, prokaryotic abundance increased more than 30x in the time-series enrichment experiment and the proportion of HNA cells increased from 60 to bigger than 99% of total prokaryote abundance. DOM dose-response experiments conducted in 2011 and 2012 yielded prokaryotic growth rate estimates between 0.35 and 0.67 d(-1) in response to the addition of sea-ice DOM. On average, 20% of the sea-ice DOC pool was utilized by the surface water prokaryotes and the observed increase in cell abundance and individual cell size indicated a release from carbon limitation of initial in situ conditions.

Prokaryotic growth yields ranged from 0.02 Cell Cycle inhibitor to 0.07 cell mu mol l(-1) DOC and 0.01 to 0.06 cell mu mol l(-1) DN and experimental conditions shifted from net autotrophic to net heterotrophic. Heterotrophic activity at the ice water boundary layer upon the release of labile first-year ice DOM is likely to impact current and future carbon flux estimates as seasonal ice becomes the predominant ice type in the Arctic.”
“Objectives: False-positive results of the galactomannan (GM) ELISA caused by concurrent administration of piperacillin/tazobactam have been reported in patients with febrile neutropenia.\n\nPatients and methods: This prospective study investigated different sampling times in 30 patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam for febrile neutropenia.


we use three-dimensional digital reconstructions an


we use three-dimensional digital reconstructions and finite-element analysis to test the hard-object processing hypothesis. We show that Archaeolemur sp. cf. A. edwardsi, a longer-faced close relative of H. stenognathus that lacked hominin convergences, was probably capable of KU-55933 mouse breaking apart large, stress-limited food items, while Hadropithecus was better suited to processing small, displacement-limited (tougher but more compliant) foods. Our suggestion that H. stenognathus was not a hard-object feeder has bearing on the interpretation of hominin cranial architecture; the features shared by H. stenognathus and robust australopiths do not necessarily reflect adaptations LDC000067 mw for hard-object processing.”
“The reaction of 4-[3-(1,2,4-triazolyl)-1,2,4-triazole] (trtr),

1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H(4)btec), with Co(II) and Cu(II) salts yields two complexes [Co(trtr)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](H(2)btec)(H(2)O)(4) (1) and [Cu(trtr)(2)(H(2)btec)(H(2)O)](H(2)O)(6)(n) (2). 1 is comprised of monomeric [Co(trtr)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2+) cation, H(2)btec(2-) anion, and lattice water molecules. The structure of 2 is an one-dimensional chain. 1 further forms a three-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. However, 2 constructs a two-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In Kilner et al. [Kilner, J.M., Kiebel, S.J., Friston, K.J., 2005. Applications of random field theory

to electrophysiology. Neurosci. Lett. 374, 174-178.] we described a fairly general analysis of induced responses-in electromagnetic brain signals-using the summary statistic approach and statistical parametric mapping This involves localising induced responses-in peristimulus time and frequency-by testing for effects in time-frequency A-1210477 manufacturer images that summarise the response of each subject to each trial type. Conventionally, these time-frequency summaries are estimated using post-hoc averaging of epoched data. However, post-hoc averaging of this sort fails when the induced responses overlap or when there are multiple response components that have variable timing within each trial (for example stimulus and response components associated with different reaction times). In these situations, it is advantageous to estimate response components using a convolution model of the sort that is standard in the analysis of fMRI time series. In this paper, we describe one such approach, based upon ordinary least squares deconvolution of induced responses to input functions encoding the onset of different components within each trial.

(C) 2008 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Purpose: Gende

(C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Gender-specific differences exist between male and female infertility patients ‘mental health, the meaning of infertility in their lives, and the coping strategies used. This systematic review examines whether gender-specific aspects are addressed in psychological intervention studies for infertility and whether infertile women and men benefit equally from such interventions.\n\nMethods: Databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 and 2007 (384 articles). The review included both controlled and uncontrolled psychological intervention studies examining results

for infertile women and men separately. Outcome measures (depressive symptoms, anxiety, and mental distress) FK506 and gender-specific baseline characteristics (mental distress at pre-assessment, cause of infertility, and medical treatment) were collected. A total of twelve studies were finally selleck chemicals llc included.\n\nResults: In 10 of 12 studies, women exhibited higher levels of mental distress than men. Gender-specific aspects were not addressed in the psychological interventions.

Examining the efficacy of psychological interventions revealed that women exhibited stronger positive mental health effects in 2 of the 12 studies.\n\nConclusion: Psychological distress before psychological treatment seems more pronounced in women than in men. Therefore psychological interventions for infertile couples should take gender-specific aspects into account. More research

is needed to address the gender-specific aspects regarding psychological interventions for infertility.”
“Seven eclogite samples from 223 to 584 m depths selleck kinase inhibitor in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main borehole (CCSD-H) in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) terrane, Eastern China, were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to characterise their microstructures. We observed, among others, omphacite, jadeitic diopside, garnet, amphibole, rutile, Na-rich plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, analcime, and diamond (contamination). Omphacite shows a well-known diffusion-ontrolled disorder-order phase transition which gives rise to antiphase domains (APDs). In our samples we observed a variation of the APDs’ size between similar to 5 nm and 2 mu m which is correlated with the content in jadeite (Jd) component. The broad maximum of similar to 1-2 mm APDs’ size is centred on Jd50. This size drops to similar to 5-10 nm for Jd37 and Jd66. The size variation can be explained with the T-path of the respective omphacites. While the large APDs of the omphacites formed and coarsened during subduction and exhumation, the smallest APDs formed and grew during exhumation. In contrast to other eclogite occurrences, deformational defects in omphacites from the CCSD-eclogites are mostly very rare.

However, six were upstaged, five as stage IV disease (one contral

However, six were upstaged, five as stage IV disease (one contralateral chest, two Smoothened Agonist datasheet contralateral chest and

abdomen, two abdomen) and one as mediastinal node positive; two further patients were reclassified histologically (one sarcomatoid, one biphasic). These eight patients fared poorly, 50% dying within 1 year from mesothelioma. Following surgical staging, 3 patients declined further surgery; thus, 19 patients proceeded to surgery, 3 were unresectable and 16 received EPP. Follow-up of all 34 patients is complete.\n\nConclusion: Surgical staging identified 26% of patients who would have received no benefit from TMT.”
“Background and Objectives: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and CD14 play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of TGF-beta 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on asthma risk and asthma-related phenotypes and gene-gene interactions with CD14 in a Chinese Han Population.\n\nMethods: We consecutively recruited 318 unrelated adult asthmatic patients and 352 healthy volunteers. Genotyping of each selected A-1155463 clinical trial SNP in TGF-beta 1 and CD14 was performed using SNP-stream

and TaqMan SNP genotyping technology. We conducted case-control and case-only association studies between the selected SNPs and asthma or asthma-related phenotypes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to detect the gene-gene interactions.\n\nResults: Neither the alleles nor the genotypes of the 3 TGF-beta 1 SNPs (i.e. rs1800469, rs1982073 and rs12983047) and CD14 SNP rs2563298 were found to be associated with asthma risk separately. However, the frequency of TGF-beta 1 rs1800469 IPI145 TT genotype was significantly lower

in asthmatic patients with CD14 rs2563298 CA or AA genotype (adjusted OR = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.07-0.55, P<0.001), which indicated significant gene-gene interactions between the TGF-beta 1 rs1800469 and the CD14 rs2563298 (adjusted OR = 8.23, 95%CI = 2.68-25.30, P<0.001). Such interactions were also found between rs1982073 and rs2563298. An evidently positive association was observed between the TGF-beta 1 SNPs and the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(high)LAP(+) T cells in asthmatic peripheral blood.\n\nConclusion: Polymorphisms in TGF-beta 1 have an effect on the risk of asthma in a Chinese Han population via gene-gene interactions with CD14.”
“Purpose: To compare the efficacy of computer-aided dosing using Coagclinic (a web-based software) with physician dosing in patients receiving warfarin for various cardiac indications. Methods: In order to calculate the effectiveness of physician managed anticoagulation dosing, we calculated the “percentage of time international normalized ratio, INR, was in the therapeutic range” (TTR) for a random sample of 70 patients in the center. For each patient, 4 INR values were taken at 4 consecutive visits, before and after the installation of Coagclinic.