We assessed risk factors associated with secondary outcomes of me

We assessed risk factors associated with secondary outcomes of metabolic syndrome, NODAT, and CHD after adjusting for type of baseline immunosuppression and transplant

center effects. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 39.8% at 1224 months post-transplant and 35.4% at 3648 months. Metabolic syndrome was independently associated with NODAT (hazard ratio 3.46, 95% confidence interval click here 2.404.98, P < 0.0001), CHD (2.03, 1.163.52, P = 0.013), and allograft failure (1.36, 1.031.79, P = 0.028). Allograft failure occurred in 218 patients (14.6%). After adjustment for metabolic syndrome, NODAT (1.63, 1.182.24, P = 0.003) and CHD (5.48, 3.279.20, P < 0.0001) remained strongly associated with increased risk of allograft failure. Metabolic syndrome, NODAT,

and CHD are risk factors for allograft failure. NODAT and CHD are risk factors for allograft failure, independent of metabolic syndrome.”
“Background: There are elevated rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance dependence; however, little research examines these rates within inpatient settings, particularly in relation to gender and type of substance. The current study aimed to fill this gap.

Method: 465 patients (71.4% male) were recruited from an inpatient substance use treatment facility from 2006 to 2009. These patients were interviewed and diagnosed using AZD6094 order the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the

Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders.

Results: 60.6% of patients with substance dependence had a current comorbid psychiatric disorder, and more than 30% had at least two psychiatric disorders. The most common current Axis I diagnosis was major depressive disorder (25.8%), followed by PTSD (14%). Comparable rates were found for Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders. Females were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder than were males (73.7% versus 55.4%). When examining comorbidities across different substance dependences, the highest rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were found among individuals with alcohol dependence GS-7977 supplier (76.8%) and cannabis dependence (76%), although rates were above 60% for cocaine and opioid dependence. Rates of psychiatric diagnoses were significantly lower (27%) among patients who did not meet diagnostic criteria for substance dependence.

Conclusions: There are particularly elevated rates of psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance dependence in inpatient treatment. These rates differ as a function of substance dependence type and gender, making these factors important to consider when researching and treating this type of population. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Pathology showed endochondral bone formation with reactive atypia

Pathology showed endochondral bone formation with reactive atypia, consistent with osteocartilaginous exostosis.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case hypothesizing an association between teriparatide and subungual exostosis. Subungual exostosis is a benign growth of bone that arises in the distal phalanx, under or adjacent to the nail bed. The pathophysiology RepSox clinical trial is not clearly understood, but the lesion has base of trabecular bone with a proliferating fibrocartilaginous cap. Teriparatide can stimulate the trabecular bone formation. Hence, an association between the use of teriparatide and the development of subungal exostosis cannot be excluded.

Further studies delineating this relationship are needed.”
“BACKGROUND: In this research the use of soybean hull hydrolysate (SHH) as substrate for xylitol and ethanol

production CCI-779 price using an osmotolerant strain of Candida guilliermondii was studied. The production of alcohols was investigated in batch cultivations in which the variable parameter was the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) obtained from three different conditions of air supply: anaerobic (1150 rpm, no aeration); microaerobic (300 rpm, 1 vvm), and aerobic (600 rpm, 2 vvm), corresponding to k(L)a values of 0; 8; and 46 h(-1), respectively.

RESULTS: SHH, although presenting a very high osmotic pressure (1413 mOsm kg(-1)), was completely metabolized under aerobic conditions with high biomass productivities of 0.49 g cells (L h)(-1), with little formation of ethanol. Xylitol was produced under microaeration, with product yield of 0.22 g g(-1) xylose, with the formation of glycerol as a by-product. No xylose was metabolized under anaerobic conditions, but ethanol was produced from hexoses with high product yields of 0.5 g g(-1).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the hydrolysis of soybean hull and its conversion to ethanol and other alcohols could be an important use of this agro-industrial waste,

which could be used for biofuel, xylitol or biomass production, ON-01910 datasheet depending on the aeration conditions of the cultures. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Contents Flow cytometry has been shown to be an accurate and highly reproducible tool for the analysis of sperm function. The main objective of this study was to assess sperm function parameters in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. Semen samples were collected from six alpaca males and processed for flow cytometric analysis of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity using SYBR-14/PI staining; acrosomal membrane integrity using FITC-conjugated Pisum Sativum Agglutinin/PI labelling; mitochondrial membrane potential (m) by staining with JC-1 and DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) by TUNEL. The results indicate that the mean value for sperm viability was 57 +/- 8 %. Spermatozoa with intact acrosome membrane was 87.9 +/- 5%, and viable sperm with intact acrosomal membrane was 46.

All rights reserved “
“BACKGROUND: Interstitial ectopic preg

All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Interstitial ectopic pregnancies are known for their dangerous implantation location and high risk of rupture.

CASE: We report an interstitial pregnancy that was not ruptured at the time of cesarean delivery. Hysterectomy was not necessary and a viable fetus was delivered with a neonatal intensive care unit AZ 628 nmr stay compatible to any neonate of his gestational age.

CONCLUSION: In very rare circumstances, interstitial pregnancies can result in a viable fetus, and careful inspection of second-trimester ultrasonogram can lead to proper

management of complicated ectopic pregnancies.”
“Appropriate selection of a single blastocyst for transfer find more decreases the risk of multiple gestations. By using a compact time-lapse microscope system placed inside a regular incubator, combined with a microwell embryo culture dish, the development of all the embryos from a patient was continuously monitored by obtaining images at 10 min intervals. The embryos

were not moved during the time-lapse observation. The system was switched off completely between image acquisitions in order to avoid exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The analysis of time-lapse records was used to choose a single blastocyst for transfer, which resulted in a singleton pregnancy and birth of a healthy boy on term. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Pyomyoma (suppurative leiomyoma of the uterus) is a rare condition resulting from infarction and infection of a leiomyoma. It can lead to sepsis and death unless treated with antibiotics and aggressive GSK461364 surgical intervention.

CASE: A 47-year-old multigravid woman with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas presented with fever, pelvic pain, and leukocytosis after uncomplicated uterine artery embolization. Pyomyoma was suspected after computed tomography scan demonstrated an enlarged, heterogeneous uterus containing copious myometrial air. She underwent supracervical hysterectomy, lysis of adhesions, and right salpingo-oophorectomy.

CONCLUSION: Surgical management of pyomyoma may be necessary early in the management of pyomyoma after uterine artery embolization.”
“Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a ‘long tail’ of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community’s successful campaign of population screening for Tay Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups.

This allows rapid identification of biomarkers for side effect su

This allows rapid identification of biomarkers for side effect susceptibility. In this way, systems pharmacology will lead to not only newer and more effective therapies, but safer medications with fewer side effects. (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2011 3 129-135 DOI: 10.1002/wsbm.114″

To examine the trend of “”mobile only”" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators.

Method: Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and IPI145 over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile

phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours.

Results: Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low ALK inhibitor Pfizer Licensed Compound Library SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis.


The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White Pages directory) may have a low impact on health estimates obtained using telephone surveys. However, researchers need to be aware that mobile only households are distinctly different to households with a landline connection, and the increase in the number of mobile-only households is not uniform across all groups in the community. Listing in the White Pages directory continues to decrease and only a small proportion of mobile only households are listed. Researchers need to be aware of these telephone sampling issues when considering telephone surveys.

Methods: We used literature

search of MEDLINE, Current Co

Methods: We used literature

search of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We focused only on randomized controlled trials reporting clinical outcomes in adult patients with HRF. Four trials met our inclusion criteria, FRAX597 concentration including 662 patients randomized to prone ventilation and 609 patients to supine ventilation.

Results: The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the ICU mortality in the intention-to-treat analysis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.22), for the comparison between prone and Supine ventilated patients. Interestingly, the pooled OR for the ICU mortality in the selected group of the more severely ill patients favored prone positioning (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66). The duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of pneumothorax were not different between the 2 groups. The incidence of VAP was lower but

not statistically significant in patients treated with prone positioning (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). However, prone positioning was associated with a higher risk of pressure sores (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) and a trend for more complications related to the endotracheal tube (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94-1.80).

Conclusions: Despite the inherent limitations of the meta-analytic approach, it seems that prone positioning has no discernible effect on mortality in patients with HRF. It may decrease the incidence of VAP at the expense of more pressure sores and complications related to the endotracheal tube. However, signaling pathway a subgroup of the most severely ill patients may benefit most from this intervention. (C) 2009 Elsevier SIS3 nmr Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Electronic band structures and spin states of

the InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) induced by the wetting-layer fluctuation were investigated by employing the technique of time-resolved Kerr rotation (TRKR) with and without magnetic field. Sign change of the Kerr rotation signal was unambiguously observed when only the wavelength of the pump/probe light was scanned. By carefully examining the dependence of TRKR signal on the excitation wavelength and magnetic field as well as photoluminescence and reflectance spectra, the physical origin causing the sign change of the Kerr signal is uncovered. It is due to the resonant excitations of electrons with opposite spin orientations at heavy-(hh) and light-hole (lh) subbands, respectively, since there is a large enough energy separation in QDs for the excitation laser pulses. This measurement also leads to a precise determination of the energy separation between the hh and lh subbands near k = 0 point in the dots. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3633508]“
“Ultrafine fibrous webs of poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) containing the bactericidal antibiotic drug rifampin were prepared by electrospinning, and their properties were investigated for wound-dressing applications.

By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A

By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography HDAC inhibitor obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.”
“The upgraded nonequilibrium magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver MACH2 is applied to the modeling

of an annular, Hall-type MHD generator that can be employed upstream of a turbojet engine at freestream conditions corresponding to Mach 5 flight at an altitude of 20 km. The simulations demonstrate the feasibility of converting

inlet kinetic power to storable electric power on aircraft traveling at supersonic to hypersonic speeds. Using ionization provided by electron-beam guns and a radial magnetic field B = 3T, the generator is shown to produce a maximum of 4.8 MW of electric power while reducing the total kinetic power of the flow by 31%. Optimizing the loading parameter, K*(Load), across the electrodes demonstrates that the generator could produce 1.54 MW of excess electric power that can be stored and used for on-board power requirements. Additionally, the reduction selleck inhibitor in flow kinetic power results in an increase in static pressure of 30% and a reduction in

stagnation temperature of 3% at the turbojet’s compressor inlet, aiding the subsequent process of combustion and allowing for operation of the turbojet at higher velocities. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3564943]“
“Traversal of pathogen across the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) is an essential step for central nervous system (CNS) invasion. Pathogen traversal can occur paracellularly, transcellularly, and/or in infected phagocytes (Trojan horse mechanism). To trigger the translocation processes, mainly through paracellular and transcellular ways, interactions between protein molecules of pathogen and BBB are inevitable. Simply, it takes two to tango: both host receptors and pathogen ligands. Underlying molecular basis of BBB translocation of various pathogens has been revealed in the last decade, and a plethora of experimental data on proteinprotein interactions has been created. S3I-201 This review compiles these data and should give insights into the ligandreceptor interactions that occur during BBB translocation. Further, it sheds light on cell signaling events triggered in response to ligandreceptor interaction. Understanding of the molecular principles of pathogenhost interactions that are involved in traversal of the BBB should contribute to develop new vaccine and drug strategies to prevent CNS infections.”
“The functional separation of ON and OFF pathways, one of the fundamental features of the visual system, starts in the retina.

(C) 2013 by National Stroke Association”
“Weight loss may de

(C) 2013 by National Stroke Association”
“Weight loss may decrease

the energy expenditure (EE) because of changes in body composition (BC). The reduction in EE may contribute, in part, to weight regain. Experimental studies in animals indicate that Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) increases the resting metabolic rate (RMR) when adjusted for body weight (BW). Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of RYGB on EE in patients who have undergone RYGB.

The study was prospective and included 46 RYGB patients whose RMR was assessed prior to and at least 6 months post-surgery by indirect calorimetry. BW and BC were measured at these same time points using bioelectric impedance. RMR was adjusted for changes in BW, i.e., kilocalories per kilogram. Statistical tests were used to analyze the results.

The BW-adjusted RMR (kilocalories per kilogram) increased post-RYGB by 17.66 % (p < 0.0001). RMR adjusted for BW was negatively correlated this website to the total percentage of body fat preoperatively (r = -0.30729, p = 0.0378) and postoperatively (r = -0.46731, p = 0.0011) and was positively correlated to the fat-free mass percentage (%FFM) both preoperatively and postoperatively. Furthermore, BW-adjusted RMR and %FFM were positively correlated to percent excess weight loss (r = 0.55398, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.31677, p = 0.0283,


Weight loss following RYGB is associated with an increase in BW-adjusted RMR and with %FFM. An increase in energy expenditure post-RYGB may be responsible, in part, for successful long-term weight loss of the RYGB procedure.”
“Objective. Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor To see more investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) technology offers any advantage over two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound in fetal biometric measurement training.

Methods. Ten midwives with no hands-on experience in ultrasound were randomized to receive training on 2D or 3D ultrasound fetal biometry assessment. Midwives were taught how to obtain fetal biometric measurements (biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL)) by a trainer. Subsequently, each midwife measured the parameters

on another 10 fetuses. The same set of measurements was repeated by the trainer. The percentage deviation between the midwives’ and the trainer’s measurements was determined and compared between training groups. Time required for completion was recorded. Frozen images were reviewed by another sonographer to assess the image quality using a standardized scoring system.

Results. The median time for the complete set of measurements was significantly shorter in the 2D than in 3D group (13.4 min versus 17.8 min, P = 0.03). The mean percentage deviations did not reach statistical significance between the two groups except for FL (3.83% in 2D group versus 2.23% in 3D group (P = 0.046)). There were no significant differences in the quality scores.


The bone marrow biopsy showed a well-differentiated ( Marschalko-

The bone marrow biopsy showed a well-differentiated ( Marschalko-type) multiple myeloma that was positive for CD138 and immunoglobulin A, with kappa light chain restriction. Interestingly, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in the majority of the neoplastic cells from S3I-201 research buy both biopsy specimens. The patient responded favorably to treatment with dexamethasone, thalidomide, and zoledronic acid and is scheduled for bone marrow transplantation.”
“Eleven compounds of interest were isolated from the aerial parts of Caryopteris incana,

specifically a new acyl derivative (3) of 8-O-acetylharpagide, two new (3R)-oct-1-en-3-ol glycosides (5, 6), and 6-O-caffeoylphlinoside A (11) along with seven known compounds, 8-O-acetylharpagide (1),

6′-O-p-coumaroyl-8-O-acetylharpagide (2), (3R)-oct-1-en-3-ol (matsutake alcohol) O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1aEuro(3) -> 6′)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), apigenin 7-O-neohesperidinoside (7), 6′-O-caffeoylarbutin (8), and two phenylethanoids, leucosceptoside A (9) and phlinoside A (10). This paper deals with structural elucidation of the new compounds.”
“An electrical asymmetry in capacitive rf discharges with NCT-501 Metabolism inhibitor a symmetrical electrode configuration can be induced by driving the discharge with a fundamental frequency and its second harmonic. For equal amplitudes of the applied voltage waveforms, it has been demonstrated by modeling, simulation, and experiments that this electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) leads to the generation of a variable dc self-bias that depends almost linearly on the phase angle between the driving voltage signals. Here, the dependence of the dc self-bias generated by the EAE on the choice of the voltage amplitudes, i.e., the ratio A of high to low Erismodegib frequency amplitude, is investigated experimentally

as well as by using an analytical model and a particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that (i) the strongest electrical asymmetry is induced for A < 1 at pressures ranging from 6 to 100 Pa and that (ii) around this optimum voltage ratio the dc self-bias normalized to the sum of both voltage amplitudes is fairly insensitive to changes of A. Thus, by choosing the optimum voltage ratio, the EAE is optimized: The ion energy can be changed over a broader energy range and a high degree of process stability with respect to small changes in the applied voltages is expected. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3223310]“
“In the course of our study on the traditional medicines and foodstuffs used in Pakistan, we investigated the origin of Indian celery by using the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear rDNA and a phytochemical approach. We found that the source plant of the Indian celery containing coumarin derivatives such as seselin (1), bergapten (2) and isopimpinellin (3) was not common celery, Apium graveolens.

“Interfacial rheological properties have yet

to be

“Interfacial rheological properties have yet

to be thoroughly explored. Only recently, methods have been introduced that provide sufficient sensitivity to reliably determine viscoelastic interfacial properties. In general, interfacial rheology describes the relationship between the deformation of an interface and the stresses exerted on it. Due to the variety in deformations of the interfacial layer (shear and expansions or compressions), the field of interfacial rheology AZD8186 molecular weight is divided into the subcategories of shear and dilatational rheology. While shear rheology is primarily linked to the long-term stability of dispersions, dilatational rheology provides information regarding short-term stability. Interfacial rheological characteristics become relevant in systems with large interfacial areas, such as emulsions and foams, and in processes that lead to a large increase in the interfacial area, such as electrospinning of nanofibers.”
“Background: Serum cystatin

C (CysC) is a marker for kidney function, possibly superior to serum creatinine (Cr). Cr is increased and CysC decreased in primary hypothyroidism; these changes are reversed upon thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy. This (pilot) study was performed to see whether VX-680 cell line these opposing changes of CysC and Cr could be confirmed in patients with central hypothyroidism.

Methods: Prospective case series of consecutively referred patients with primary and central by hypothyroidism. CysC and Cr were determined at the time of diagnosis and following T4 replacement therapy.

Results: 32 patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism BVD-523 concentration were included. In 16 patients with primary hypothyroidism, mean FT4 was 4.4 +/- 2.5 pmol/l (normal range 12 to 22) at diagnosis and increased to 20.1

+/- 5.2 pmol/l (p <0.001) following T4 replacement. CysC increased from 0. 79 +/- 0.27 mg/l (normal range 0.63 to 1.33) to 1.03 +/- 0.42 mg/l (p = 0.007) whereas Cr declined from 104 +/- 21 mu mol/l to 90 +/- 19 mu mol/l (p<0.001). In 16 patients with central hypothyroidism, mean fT4 was 6.5 +/- 1.6 pmol/l at diagnosis and increased to 15.7 +/- 3.3 pmol/l (p<0.001) following T4 replacement. CysC increased from 0.74 +/- 0.27 mg/l to 0.83 +/- 0.30 mg/l (p = 0.01) whereas Cr was not elevated at baseline (83 +/- 11 mu mol/l) and did not decrease following treatment (84 +/- 10 mu mol/l).

Conclusions: CysC was low at diagnosis of hypothyroidism and significantly increased following T4 replacement in patients with primary as well as central hypothyroidism. T4 replacement decreased Cr levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism whereas Cr remained unchanged in patients with central hypothyrodism. CysC may not accurately reflect kidney function in patients with primary and central thyroid dysfunction.

They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple p

They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple partial seizures, but they also can be associated to different degrees of disturbed conciousness. Initial ictal symptoms often are closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuit involved and, therefore, can provide localizing information. When brain regions related to sensory integration are involved, the seizure discharge can cause specific kinds of hallucinations, for example, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and cutaneous sensory sensations. In addition to these elementary sensory perceptions, quite complex hallucinations related to a partial seizure can arise, for example, perception

of visual scenes or hearing music. By involving psychic and emotional spheres of human perception, many seizures also give rise to hallucinatory LY333531 manufacturer emotional states (e.g., fear or happiness) or even more complex hallucinations (e.g., visuospatial phenomena), illusions (e.g., deja vu, out-of-body experience), or delusional beliefs

(e.g., identity change) that often are not easily recognized as epileptic. Here we suggest a classification into elementary sensory, complex sensory, and complex integratory seizure symptoms. Epileptic hallucinations, illusions, and delusions shine interesting light on the physiology and functional anatomy of brain regions involved and their functions in the human being. This article, in which 10 cases are described, introduces the fascinating phenomenology of subjective seizure symptoms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Galardin Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hyperbranched polyesteramides (HB1 and HB2) were prepared by the bulk reaction between phthalic anhydride (PhAn) with either diisopropanolamine (DiPA) or diethanolamine (DEA), respectively. The hyperbranched

ATM Kinase Inhibitor polyesteramides were characterized by IR, GPC, H-1-NMR, and thermal analysis (TGA and DSC). The effects of solutions of 1, 3, and 5 wt % HB1 and HB2 on the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) were studied. Measurements of water of consistency, setting times, bulk density, apparent porosity, and compressive strength for the cement pastes were performed. Some selected cement pastes were characterized by IR and SEM photos. The results showed that HB1 and HB2 slightly increased the compressive strength, the combined water and density while decreased the apparent porosity. IR of the formed phases showed increase in the intensities of the spectra for the cement pastes mixed with HB1 and HB2 when compared with those of the blank cement pastes. SEM images showed that the incorporation of HB1 and HB2 affected only shape or morphology and crystallinity of the formed hydrates. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3054-3064, 2011″
“Biomolecular patterning on a nanoscale/microscale on chip surfaces is one of the most important techniques used in vitro biochip technologies.