Cell growth was promoted by 0 1 mu M brassinolide (BL) and inhibi

Cell growth was promoted by 0.1 mu M brassinolide (BL) and inhibited by 5 mu M brassinazole (Brz). Analysis of BR-regulated proteins in nuclear-enriched fractions was carried out using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with

a special fluorescent dye. Proteins of interest were identified by correlating normalized spot volume of proteins on the gels with cellular BR level BAY 57-1293 in vivo (Brz-treated cells, extremely low level of BRs; control cells, normal level of BRs; BL-treated cells, high level of BRs). A number of BR-responsive proteins were detected and some of these proteins were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic digestion. Fluctuations in eight identified nuclear proteins in BL-treated cells were investigated in the first 12 h of treatment. Three nuclear BR-responsive proteins, Nucleosome Assembly

Protein (NAP) 1;1, Band 7 Family Protein, and Vernalization Independence 3, significantly decreased during this time. Meanwhile, NAP1:2, S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase 2, and 60S Ribosomal Protein L14 increased markedly over time. Since some of these proteins are reportedly related to chromosome remodeling, cell growth induced by BL may involve chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, NAP1:2 was found to be post-translationally modified in response to cellular BR levels. Our study of quantitative protein changes in the nucleus provides valuable GS-4997 cell line insight into BR-induced cellular and physiological responses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Yttrium nitride (YN) is a promising semiconductor for use in metal/semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications. We determine its electronic structure, vibrational spectrum, and thermal properties using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based simulations with a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of the exchange correlation LGK-974 clinical trial energy. We employ GGA+U and GW approximations in our calculations to (a) improve the accuracy of the

calculation of bandgaps and (b) determine specific features of its electronic structure relevant to transport properties, such as transverse (m(t)*) and longitudinal (m(1)*) conduction band effective mass. To evaluate consequences of forming alloys of YN with other materials to its electronic properties, we have determined the volume deformation potentials. Our results for phonons show a large longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) splitting at the Gamma point in the vibrational spectrum with a gap of 325 cm(-1) arising from long-range dipole-dipole interactions. We estimate temperature dependent lattice specific heat and lattice thermal conductivity based on Boltzmann transport theory to assess YN’s potential for thermoelectric applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

To further clarify whether suboptimal GH secretion in PWS is an a

To further clarify whether suboptimal GH secretion in PWS is an artefact of excess weight, we evaluated both GH immunological activity and GH bioactivity after arginine administration in 23 non-obese PWS patients [seven females, aged 6.9 +/- 0.9 years, body mass index (BMI) SDS 0.63 +/- 0.26], in comparison with a control group of 32 healthy subjects, matched for age, gender and BMI (10 females, aged

7.9 +/- 0.3 years, BMI SDS 0.21 +/- 0.20). Serum GH concentration was measured with a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA), while GH bioactivity was evaluated by the Nb2 cell bioassay. Serum IGF-I concentrations were measured by double-antibody RIA. GH SP600125 mean peak after pharmacological stimulation was significantly lower Fer-1 purchase in PWS individuals compared with controls when measured either by IFMA (6.05 +/- 1.23 mu g/L vs. 23.7 +/- 1.06 mu g/L, p<0.0001) or by Nb2 (6.87 +/- 0.55 mu g/L vs. 12.88 +/- 0.19 mu g/L, p<0.0001). Analysis of integrated GH secretion (AUC) confirmed that the PWS group differed significantly from the control subjects (387.9 +/- 76.1 mu g/L/h

vs. 1498.1 +/- 56.2 mu g/L/h, p<0.0001); the same result was obtained when the GH rise after arginine administration was expressed as nAUC (278.2 +/- 53.3 mu g/L/h vs. 1443.6 +/- 52.5 mu g/L/h, p<0.0001). PWS patients had an IGF-I SDS significantly lower than those found in control subjects (p<0.0001). Subnormal IGF-I values were present in 19 PWS individuals (82.6%) and two healthy controls (6.2%). These findings are in agreement with the hypothesis that a complex derangement of hypothalamus-pituitary axis occurs in PWS.”
“For the first time, this study analyzes the cost of multiple conventional reconstructions and face transplantation in a single patient. This patient is a 46-year-old female victim of a shotgun blast resulting in loss of multiple functional and aesthetic subunits. For over 5 years, she underwent multiple conventional reconstructions with suboptimal results. In December 2008, she became the recipient of GSK1904529A mouse the

first U.S. face transplant. This has provided the unique opportunity to present the cost of 23 separate conventional reconstructive procedures and the first face transplant in the United States. The combined cost of conventional reconstructive procedures and the first U.S. face transplant was calculated to be $353 480 and $349 959, respectively. The combined cost posttransplant totaled $115 463. The direct cost pretransplant was $206 646, $232 893 peritransplant and $74 236 posttransplant. The two largest areas of cost utilization were surgical ($79 625; 38.5%) and nursing ($55 860; 27%), followed by anesthesia ($24 808; 12%) and pharmacy ($16 581; 8%). This study demonstrates that the cost of the first U.S. face transplant is similar to multiple conventional reconstructions.

All the children were 12-14 years old We measured anthropometric

All the children were 12-14 years old. We measured anthropometric parameters by a standardized method and the percentage of fat using the simple 2-site skinfold method. Additionally, we calculated the percentage of body composition (Matiegka) and the components of somatotype (Heath-Carter). Statistical significance was estimated at the

level of p<0.05 by ANOVA test.

Results: The asthmatic boys were significantly shorter than the non-asthmatic (p=0.015), however, we did not find any significant this website differences in weight and/or BMI in boys nor girls. The asthmatic boys had significantly higher fat mass % than the non-asthmatic ones (p<0.001). Moreover, they had significantly lower muscle mass % (p<0.001) as well as the bone mass % (p<0.001). The asthmatic girls had higher fat mass % than the non-asthmatic ones (p=0.028) and lower muscle mass % (p<0.001). The simple 2-site skinfold method also showed higher fat % in the asthmatic boys (p<0.001) but not in the girls. Examining the Heath-Carter somatotype components, the higher endomorphy was the only significant difference in asthmatic boys (p<0.001) and near significant in asthmatic girls (p=0.053).

Conclusion: Examination of the BMI alone is not sufficient in asthmatic children because of their high percentage of fat. That is why additionally testing fat % is recommended.”
“Purpose: Some find more scientific studies show decreased bone

mineral density and increased fracture frequency in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanism for early bone loss in CF patients

are multifactorial: chronic pulmonary inflammation, malnutrition, reduced physical activity, delayed pubertal maturation. The aim of this study was to assess bone metabolism markers with special attention paid to osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) balance in CF children.

Material and Methods: The study included 35 children with diagnosed CF and 35 healthy controls aged 5-9 years (median 7.0 years). 3-deazaneplanocin A in vitro Serum levels of fat soluble vitamins were measured by chemiluminescence (vitamin D) and HPLC (vitamins A, E) methods. Concentrations of bone metabolism markers were determined by immunoenzymatic assay.

Results: Mean levels of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E) were lower in patients with CF compared to controls. In CF children we observed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in concentration of bone formation marker (osteocalcin) and similar bone resorption markers (CTX, TRACP5b) in comparison with healthy children. The serum level of OPG was significantly lower (p<0.05) and RANKL nearly 2-fold higher in patients with CF than in the healthy ones. The ratio of OPG to RANKL was about 2-fold lower in children with CF compared to healthy peers (p<0.01).

Conclusion: In CF children, an imbalance between bone formation and resorption processes occurs.

Conclusion: Endobronchial closure of BPF using both types of Ampl

Conclusion: Endobronchial closure of BPF using both types of Amplatzer occluders (AD and AVP) is a minimally invasive effective modality of treatment with high safety profile and satisfactory long-term outcome considering the poor prognosis in this particular group of patients. signaling pathway (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This study assays

therapy with basiliximab and different patterns of cyclosporin A (CsA) initiation in renal transplant (RT) recipients from expanded criteria donors (ECD) and at high risk of delayed graft function (DGF). A multicentre six-month open-label randomized trial with three parallel groups treated with basiliximab plus steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and different patterns of CsA initiation: early within 24 h post-RT at 3 mg/kg/d (Group 1; n = 38), and at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 2; n = 40), or delayed after 7-10 d at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 3; n = 36). There were no differences among groups selleck screening library in six months GFR (43.1 +/- 12, 48.0 +/- 14 and 47.2 +/- 17 mL/min, respectively), DGF (Group 1: 31%, Group 2: 37%, Group 3: 42%), nor biopsy-proven acute rejection, although clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection was

significantly higher in Group 3 (25%) vs. Group 1 (5.3%, p < 0.05). At six months no differences were observed in death-censored graft survival or patient survival. Induction therapy with basiliximab and three CsA-ME initiation patterns in RT recipients from ECD and at high risk of DGF presented good renal selleck chemicals llc function and graft survival at six months. Late onset group did not achieve improvement in DGF rate and showed a higher incidence of clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection.”
“We demonstrate the origin and mechanism of the hysteresis behavior that is frequently observed during the operation of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on polymer gate dielectrics. Although polar functionalities, such as hydroxyl groups, present in the polymer gate dielectrics

are known to induce hysteresis, there have only been a few detailed investigations examining how the presence of such end functionalities both at the polymer surface-forming an interface with the semiconductor layer-and in the bulk influences the hysteresis. In this study, we control the hydrophobicity of the polymer by varying the number of hydroxyl groups, and use an ultrathin polymer/SiO(2) bilayer and a thick single polymer as the gate dielectric structure so that the hysteresis behavior is divided into contributions from hydroxyl groups present at the polymer surface and in the bulk, respectively. Electrical characterizations of the OFETs, performed both in vacuum (approximate to 10(-3) Torr) and in ambient air (relative humidity of about 40%), show that the observed hysteresis is determined by the transport of water within the polymer (i.e., the adsorption at the polymer surface and the diffusion into the bulk), which in turn is controlled by the hydrophobicity and the thickness of the polymer.


“A series of acrylic monomers-starch graft copolymers were


“A series of acrylic monomers-starch graft copolymers were prepared by ceric ion initiation method by varying the amount of monomers. These graft copolymers

were characterized by IR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PI3K inhibitor It was seen that as the concentration of monomer [acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA), and methyl methacrylate (MMA)] increased the percent add-on increased in all the graft copolymers, whereas grafting efficiency increased initially but showed a slight decrease with further increase in the monomer concentration (except for MMA). The release rate of paracetamol as a model drug from graft copolymers as well as their blends was studied at two different pH, 1.2 and 7.4, spectrophotometrically. The release of paracetamol in phosphate buffer solution at pH 1.2 was insignificant in the first 3 h for St-g-PAA- and St-g-PMA-graft copolymers, which was attributed to the matrix compaction and stabilization through hydrogen bonding at lower pH. At pH 7.4, the release rate was seen to decrease with increase in add-on. The tablet containing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) did not disintegrate at the end of 30-32 h, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of PMMA. These results indicate that the graft copolymers may be useful to overcome the harsh environment MK 2206 of the stomach and can be used as excipients in colon-targeting matrices.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2893-2900, 2009″
“Tracheal aspirates were collected from 176 hospitalized antibiotic-pretreated children with community-acquired pneumonia. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected by both culture and target-enriched multiplex (TEM)-PCR whereas Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by TEM-PCR Only. TEM-PCR detected more S. pneumoniae (32 vs. 7) and H. influenzae (29 vs. 23) than did culture. TEM-PCR detected

an additional 26 M. pneumoniae and 1 C pneumoniae. TEM-PCR significantly enhances the pathogen-specific diagnosis of CAP in children.”
“The Cu-doped SnO2 nanowires (NWs) with average diameter of 40-100 nm were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor transport method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Metabolism inhibitor energy dispersive spectroscopy studies of Cu-doped SnO2 NWs demonstrate that the NWs are single-crystal structures and Cu is homogeneously doped into the SnO2 lattice. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements evidence the existence of divalent Cu ions (Cu2+). Although the NWs consist of only nonmagnetic elements, room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed and its origin is attributed to both the structure defects and strong p-d ferromagnetic coupling between the local magnetic moment of Cu2+ and the polarized valence electrons of the surrounding oxygen based on first-principles calculations.


“A


“A PLX3397 purchase thermodynamic model is proposed to study the exergetic content of incident solar radiation reaching on the Earth’s surface which can be used to produce work through a dually cascaded thermodynamic cycle. The “”topping”" cycle is an ad hoc engine created by nature that connects the outer shell of the terrestrial atmosphere (which is in equilibrium with the extraterrestrial solar radiation) to the collector of a solar heat engine operating on the Earth’s surface. The work produced by the topping cycle is dissipated in form of scattering, absorption,

heat, movement of air masses (wind), etc. The “”bottoming”" cycle is a heat engine operating between the collector and surrounding temperatures, and delivers useful work. It is shown that the maximum work extractable from this system as exergy is obtained when both cycles operate reversibly. An expression for this maximum work, which represents the exergy of incident solar radiation on the Earth’s surface, is proposed. The application of the present model is illustrated and validated by calculating the exergy of solar radiation based on some measurements. The results obtained by the present model are compared to the ones obtained through other models

available in the open literature.”
“Purpose: With the numbers of cancer diagnoses increasing annually and the aging of the global citizenry, it is certain that more nurses G418 with expert competencies in cancer care will be needed. Nursing students must have a broad understanding of cancer content in order

to provide safe, effective care in the clinical setting as they learn to recognize their own experiences in caring for cancer patients. Experienced nursing educators are aware that student nurses bring into any clinical learning situation their unique knowledge, RGFP966 concentration values, fear, uncertainty and bias. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of nursing students caring for cancer patients.

Method: This descriptive qualitative study included participants who were Junior or Senior Baccalaureate nursing students and had provided care for at least one patient with cancer during clinical experiences. Focus group interviews were transcribed verbatim for analysis and coding using accepted qualitative techniques.

Results: Data analysis revealed student experiences to be varied in the type of cancer patient experiences. Four prevalent sub-themes emerged regarding student experiences: caring for patients and families, interactions between students and healthcare providers, student experiences with dying patients, and students’ prior experiences with cancer. Further discussion with students revealed a student perspective for strengthening cancer in the curriculum.

Conclusion: Preparing students to be comfortable with cancer patients across the cancer illness trajectory will provide students with the necessary skills to gain confidence in their cancer patient care. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

The difference found at similar scotoperiods with increasing or d

The difference found at similar scotoperiods with increasing or decreasing day length may be involved in the perception of the photoperiodic changes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Modern wide field-of-view atom probes permit observation of a wide

range of crystallographic features that can be used to calibrate the tomographic reconstruction of the analyzed volume. In this study, Temsirolimus solubility dmso methodologies to determine values of the geometric parameters involved in the tomographic reconstruction of atom probe data sets are presented and discussed. The influence of the tip to electrode distance and specimen temperature on these parameters is explored. Significantly, their influence is demonstrated to be very limited, indicating a relatively wide regime of experimental parameters space for sound

atom probe tomography (APT) experiments. These methods have been used on several specimens and material types, and the results indicate that the reconstruction parameters are specific to each specimen. Finally, it is shown how an accurate check details calibration of the reconstruction enables improvements to the quality and reliability of the microscopy and microanalysis capabilities of the atom probe.”
“Objective: To measure the impact of an automated outbound telephone messaging system on herpes zoster (HZ) vaccinations among older adults in the community pharmacy setting.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: 16 grocery store chain community pharmacies in Georgia and Tennessee, between December 2006 and May 2007.

Patients: Adults 60 years or older who filled at BAY 80-6946 ic50 least one prescription at a participating study pharmacy.

Intervention: A 30-second automated outbound telephone message was delivered to patient households monthly during the first week of March through May 2007. The message advertised that older adults should speak with their pharmacist about the risk for HZ and the availability of a new vaccine.

Main outcome measure: HZ vaccinations based on pharmacy profile records.

Results: After 3 months, 146 and 46 vaccinations were administered

to older adults among the study cohort populations, translating into HZ vaccination rates of 2.60% and 0.72% at intervention and control pharmacies, respectively (odds ratio 3.69 [95% CI 2.64-5.15], P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Use of an automated outbound telephone messaging tool to inform older adults about their risk for HZ and the availability of a vaccine significantly improved vaccination rates in the community pharmacy setting.”
“Up to date, information concerning the Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in fallow deer is scant, therefore, to verify its prevalence in these ungulates serological and PCR screenings were performed on blood of 72 fallow deer hunted in a Central-Northern Italian preserve. Molecular analyses were also performed on 90 ticks removed from the animals.

A. phagocytophilum infection in fallow deer was confirmed in 20 out 72 by IFA assay and in 11 out 72 by PCR.

Results: The age-standardized prevalence of sedentary lifestyle w

Results: The age-standardized prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 53.8%, 39.5%, and 32.6% in 1995, 2000, and 2005 respectively. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle has decreased especially in women older than 50 years living Selleckchem Belnacasan in the urban areas. An increase in light and moderate physical activity practice

in men older than 50 years and in light physical activity practice in women older than 50 years was observed. Female gender, age, smoking and lower educational level were associated with a higher prevalence of sedentary lifestyle.

Conclusions: Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle has decreased in the 1995-2005 period in Girona, especially in women, but is still high. Health promotion programs should include physical activity practice as a key element and should take into account gender and social inequalities. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“P>Australia-wide population-based surveillance

for scedosporiosis identified 180 cases, with 118 (65.6%) cases of colonization and 62 (34.4%) cases of infection. Predisposing factors for isolation of Scedosporium spp. included chronic lung disease in 37.8% and malignancy in 21.7% of cases. Predictors of invasive disease (n = 62) included haematological stem find more cell transplantation (n = 7), leukaemia (n = 16) and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). Of 183 phenotypically-speciated isolates, 75 (41%) were Scedosporium prolificans (risk factors: haematologic cancer (n = 17), neutropaenia (n = 14)) and 108 (59%) had Scedosporium

apiospermum/Pseudallescheria boydii phenotype [risk factor: diabetes (n = 15)]. Scedosporium prolificans (p 0.01) and leukaemia (p 0.03) independently predicted death. Epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Scedosporium aurantiacum (prevalence >= 15.8%) and S. apiospermum were Tideglusib clinical trial similar. No patient with S. aurantiacum infection (n = 6) died. This is the first description of clinical features associated with S. aurantiacum.”
“Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is caused by a failure to form the midline of the forebrain and/or midface. It is one of the most common human birth defects, but clinical expression is extremely variable. HPE is associated with mutations in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway. Mice lacking the Shh pathway regulator Cdo (also called Cdon) display HPE with strain-dependent penetrance and expressivity, implicating silent modifier genes as one cause of the variability. However, the identities of potential HPE modifiers of this type are unknown. We report here that whereas mice lacking the Cdo paralog Boc do not have HPE, Cdo; Boc double mutants on a largely Cdo-resistant genetic background have lobar HPE with strong craniofacial anomalies and defects in Shh target gene expression in the developing forebrain. Boc is therefore a silent HPE modifier gene in mice.

Cooking beans and chickpeas in water significantly increased Prot

Cooking beans and chickpeas in water significantly increased Protein, starch, SDF, IDF, TDF, Mn and P contents (on a dry weight basis), whereas reduced ash, K, Mg, TIA, tannin, Sucrose and oligosaccharide contents

were observed. Colored beans (black, cranberry, dark red kidney, pinto and small red bean) contained tannins, whereas little tannin in white-colored beans (great northern and white pea bean) and chickpeas (Desi and Kabuli type) was detected. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Renin-angiotensin (RAS) genes, a group of promising candidate genes involved in essential hypertension (EH), play a key role in blood pressure regulation. Recently, a series Cell Cycle inhibitor of novel RAS gene polymorphisms were reported, which significantly influence the rate of the gene transcription. This study was designed to explore the association between the RAS gene polymorphisms and EH in a remote countryside population. We examined six polymorphisms in the main component genes of RAS: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) (A-6G, A-20C, G-217A and T174 M) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) (A1166C). Six polymorphisms were genotyped by gene chip technology. Association studies were performed in 220 EH patients and 235 normotensives.

Our results revealed that AGT A-6G, T174M and ACE-I/D were significantly associated with EH (AGT A-6G: AG+GG vs AA; OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.04-1.77. T174M: CT+TT vs CC; OR = 1.45; Bromosporine nmr 95% CI = 1.15-1.90. ACE I/D: ID+DD vs II; OR = 1.171; 95% CI = 1.00-1.37). Moreover the logistic regression analysis suggested that the haplotype of AGT -6A, 174C, -217G and -20A might decrease the risk of EH (OR 0.64; 95% CI = 0.49-0.83), after adjusting the confounding factors of gender, age and BMI. In conclusion, the AGT A-6G, T174M and ACE I/D polymorphisms are associated with EH and the AGT haplotype -6A, 174C, -217G and -20A decrease the risk of EH in the southern Chinese population.”
“Background Breast cancer survivors are less likely to be

employed than similar healthy women, yet effects of employment selleck chemicals llc on the well being of survivors are largely unknown. In a prospective cohort study of 2013 women diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 with invasive breast cancer in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we describe associations between hours worked per week and change in employment with quality of life (QOL) from diagnosis through active treatment. Methods Participants completed information on employment status and QOL approximately 2 and 8months post-diagnosis. QOL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer TherapyBreast Cancer. Multivariable linear regression models were adjusted for potential confounders including demographic, diagnostic, and medical care factors to examine associations between employment and QOL.


“Drug-eluting stents (DES)

have revolutionized the


“Drug-eluting stents (DES)

have revolutionized the practice of interventional cardiology over the past decade. Although their efficacy has never been called into question, concerns have been raised regarding their safety, particularly with respect to very late stent thrombosis. These valid concerns have prompted extensive research into improving stent safety, with particular interest in modifying the permanent polymer used on first-generation DES. Subsequently, Selleck Milciclib various new types of coronary stent have been developed, including DES with biocompatible polymers, DES with biodegradable polymers, polymer-free DES, and completely bioresorbable scaffolds. Some of these new DES are already available in clinical practice, and others are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Selleckchem GSK1904529A Improvements in stent performance have made detecting statistically robust and clinically relevant differences between contemporary devices difficult. The wide array of available stents enables the choice of device to be tailored to the individual patient. Garg, S. et al. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 10, 248-260 (2013); published online 19 February 2013; doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2013.13″
“Iron nanomaterials are of considerable interest for application to nanotechnology-related fields including environmental catalysis, biomedical imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia,

because of their superparamagnetic characteristics MDV3100 purchase and high catalytic abilities. However, information about potential risks of iron nanomaterials is limited. The present study assessed pulmonary responses to a single intratracheal spray instillation of triiron tetraoxide nanoparticles (magnetite) in rats. Ten-week-old male and female Fischer 344 rats (n=5/group)

were exposed to a single intratracheal spray instillation of 0 (vehicle), 5.0, 15.0 or 45.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) of magnetite. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed, and biological consequences were investigated. The lung weights of the 15.0 and 45.0 mg/kg BW male and female groups were significantly higher than those of the control groups. The lungs of treated rats showed enlargement and black patches originating from the color of magnetite. The typical histopathological changes in the lungs of the treated rats included infiltration of macrophages phagocytosing magnetite, inflammatory cell infiltration, granuloma formation and an increase of goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. The results clearly show that instilled magnetite causes foreign body inflammatory and granulating lesions in the lung. These pulmonary responses occur in a dose-dependent manner in association with the increase in lung weight. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.25.233; J Toxicol Pathol 2012; 25: 233-239)”
“Purpose Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and influences the development of tumors. The role of PDGF in benign thyroid diseases is presently not well-determined.