Taken together, IPD-196 exhibited its anticancer activity through

Taken together, IPD-196 exhibited its anticancer activity through disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway that caused cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of angiogenesis in human HCC cells. We therefore suggest that IPD-196 may be a potential candidate drug for targeted HCC therapy.

Crown Copyright (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“NBS1 gene plays an important role in DNA repair. Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between NBS1 8360G > C polymorphism and breast cancer, however, the results are still controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of 10 case-control studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs) selleck chemical with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. The results showed NBS1 8360G > C polymorphism contributed to breast risk in overall populations (for CC vs. GG: OR = 0.75, 95% CI JQ1 = 0.74-0.98, P = 0.13 for heterogeneity; for the recessive model CC vs. GG/CG: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.77-1.00, P = 0.44 for heterogeneity). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was found in all genetic models. In summary, our meta-analysis strongly suggests the NBS1 8360G > C polymorphism is associated with breast cancer.”
“Here we report on a method to

track individual molecules on nanometer length and microsecond timescales using an optical microscope. Our method is based on double-labeling of a molecule with two spectrally distinct fluorophores and illuminating it with laser pulses of different wavelengths that partially overlap temporally. We demonstrate our method by using it to resolve the motion of short DNA oligomers in solution down to a timescale of 100 mu S.”
“The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) is highly recognized by M. tuberculosis infected subjects. In the present study, the proliferative response and IFN-gamma secretion

was found for C-terminal peptides of the protein (Cfp6(51-70), Cfp7(61-80), Cfp8(71-90), AG-881 inhibitor and Cfp9(81-100)). The alleles HLA DRB1 *04 and HLA DRB1 *10 recognized the C-terminal peptides Cfp7, Cfp8, and Cfp9 in HHC. Cfp6 was predominantly recognized by the alleles HLA DRB1 *03 and HLA DRB1 *15 by PTB. The minimal nonameric epitopes from the C-terminal region were CFP-10(56-64) and CFP-10(76-84). These two peptides deserve attention for inclusion in a vaccine against tuberculosis in this region.”
“BACKGROUND\n\nAcute exercise may exert deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system through a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms, including increased platelet activation. However, the degree of exercise-induced platelet activation in untreated hypertensive (UH) individuals as compared with normotensive (NT) individuals has yet to be established. Furthermore, the effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced platelet activation in essential hypertension (EH) remains unknown.

This study investigated the osteogenic effect of low-magnitude hi

This study investigated the osteogenic effect of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV, 35 Hz, 0.3g) on the enhancement of fracture healing in rats with closed femoral shaft fracture by comparing with sham-treated control. Assessments with plain radiography, Caspase inhibitor micro-CT as well as histomorphometry showed that the amount of callus was significantly larger (p = 0.001 for callus area, 2 weeks posttreatment); the remodeling

of the callus into mature bone was significantly faster (p = 0.039, 4 weeks posttreatment) in the treatment group. The mechanical strength of the healed fracture in the treatment group at 4 weeks was significantly greater (p < 0.001). The results showed the acceleration of callus formation, mineralization, and fracture healing in the treatment group. It is concluded that LMHFV enhances healing in the closed femoral shaft fracture in rats. The potential clinical advantages shall

be confirmed in the subsequent clinical trials. (C) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:458-465, 2009″
“In epilepsy diagnosis or epileptic seizure detection, much effort has been focused on finding effective combination of feature extraction and classification methods. In this paper, we develop a wavelet-based sparse functional linear model for representation of EEG signals. LY2606368 solubility dmso The aim of this modeling approach is to capture discriminative random components check details of EEG signals using wavelet variances. To achieve this goal, a forward search algorithm is proposed for determination of an appropriate wavelet decomposition level. Two EEG databases from University of Bonn and University of Freiburg are used for illustration of applicability of the proposed method to both epilepsy diagnosis

and epileptic seizure detection problems. For this data considered, we show that wavelet-based sparse functional linear model with a simple classifier such as 1-NN classification method leads to higher classification results than those obtained using other complicated methods such as support vector machine. This approach produces a 100 % classification accuracy for various classification tasks using the EEG database from University of Bonn, and outperforms many other state-of-the-art techniques. The proposed classification scheme leads to 99 % overall classification accuracy for the EEG data from University of Freiburg.”
“Myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and the propensity to leukemic transformation. Their pathogenesis is complex and likely depends on interplay between aberrant hematopoietic cells and their microenvironment.

“Vegetative grafting has been proposed as a technique for

“Vegetative grafting has been proposed as a technique for managing diseases in tomatoes under open-field conditions. Over 2 successive years, we investigated the use of grafting under open-field fresh tomato production and found a serious limitation with current grafting techniques, which resulted in recurring rootstock shoot regrowth (“suckering”) from the rootstock cotyledons when left intact. Left unchecked, the regrowth of tomato rootstocks can envelop the experimental scions, which can impact the growth of field-grown tomatoes. In the Fall of 2007, the cultivars Multifort, Aloha, and TX-301 with

‘FL-47′ scions were grafted by a commercial propagator. These grafted plants were planted in a field experiment and after a time period, the number of rootstock suckers was counted and 3-MA datasheet removed. This process was repeated over five time periods. In 2008, we grafted

all of the plants below the rootstock cotyledons. During five different time periods spanning 57 d, bud regrowth from the rootstock occurred in all studied rootstocks in 2007. The difference in the 2 years was dramatic. In the first year, the number of plants with rootstock regrowth was as high as 84.6% in some of the plots for ‘Multifort’, 30.7% for ‘Aloha’, and 15.4% for ‘TX-301′. In the second year, with a different grafting technique, no regrowth from the rootstocks was observed. Even when the rootstock regrowth was Selleckchem Birinapant removed in 2007, the rootstock sprout growth would reappear from the rootstock. The statistical interaction of the percentage of plants with rootstock regrowth for all recorded dates in 2007 was significant for ‘Multifort’ (Tukey-Fischer P <= 0.05) but not ‘Aloha’ or ‘TX-301′. Although the study also contained fumigation treatments, no interaction Napabucasin of soil treatments on root sprouting was observed. Since adopting this method, rootstock regrowth

has not been observed in subsequent field experiments for the past 3 years.”
“Eco-friendly step-and-flash imprint lithography was investigated for the future high-volume manufacture of biomicrochips. A nanoimprinted ultraviolet-curing liquid material with a lactulose derivative derived from medicinal drugs was found to have excellent UV curing properties, film shrinkage during a UV curing reaction, and good etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment. 80 nm half-pitch lines of the nanoimprinted ultraviolet-curing liquid material with a lactulose derivative were resolved using the process conditions for a trilayer including a silicon-based middle layer with a high silicon concentration of 21.5 wt % and a novolac-based bottom layer on a 100 mm silicon wafer in step-and-flash imprint lithography. (C) 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1980) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) is an accidentally introduced pest that damages palm trees in the northern Mediterranean area.

nordestina and in the long arm subtelomeric region of P rohdei

nordestina and in the long arm subtelomeric region of P. rohdei. Chromosomal data from this study indicate karyotypic homeology between the two groups of P. hypochondrialis species and suggest the existence of more than one taxon under the P. rohdei name.”
“Coeliac disease (CD) is a highly prevalent autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the

ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. The CD is associated with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes particularly with HLA-DQ alleles encoding HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 proteins. To define risk and severity alleles for CD, a total of 120 definite CD patients and 100 healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DQB1 gene. HLA-DQB1 genotyping was performed in all patients and controls using SNX-5422 manufacturer PCR-SSP technique, and to evaluate the clinical relevance of testing for HLA-DQB1 and determining absolute risk of disease, prevalence-corrected positive predictive Liproxstatin-1 manufacturer value and prevalence-corrected negative predictive value (PcPPV and PcNPV) were calculated. Our results for a first time show that DQB1*02:00 and DQB1*03:02 alleles and DQB1*02:01/03:02 genotype very significantly associated with increased risk of patients with CD, and DQB1*03:01,4 allele provides protection

against CD in Iranian patients. Furthermore, the PcPPV for DQB*02:01 and 03:02 alleles in CD were 0.014 and 0.012, respectively, and the highest absolute risk presented by DQB*0201/0302 genotype (PcPPV = 0.079) and 98% of patients this website with CD carried DQB1*02:01/xor DQB1*03:02/x genotype. The results also clearly demonstrated that the DQB1*02:01 allele significantly associated with severity of CD, while DQB1*03:02 allele associated with mild form of CD. These results

suggest that clinically suspected individuals for CD and first-degree relatives of patients with CD to be screened for HLADQB*0201 and DQB*0302 alleles for possible early diagnosis and treatments.”
“In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, two clonal TCR samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and nine TCR), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (four IGH, 10 TCR), albeit nonconclusive.

The purpose of this study

was to use biological lubricant

The purpose of this study

was to use biological lubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Methods: Twenty-eight flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the second and fifth digits of 14 dogs were lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial operation, the tendons were reconstructed with flexor digitorum profundus allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin plus lubricin. Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, PF-04929113 datasheet and biology were analyzed. Results: Allograft tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin had decreased adhesions Epigenetic inhibitor nmr at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within the flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon-to-bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histologic

evaluation showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Conclusions: Carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK1904529A.html However, delayed bone-to-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendon substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period.”
“Objective: Gene expression patterns differ in the two types of skeletal muscle fiber. The Wnt signaling pathway, which includes low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), has been associated with cell differentiation and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles. We examined the relationships between

muscle fiber types and LRP6 expression. Methods: Adenosine triphosphatase was assayed histochemically, and the levels of expression of LRP6 and myosin were analyzed immunohistochemically, in frozen sections of muscle fiber obtained from 16 muscle biopsy samples. The expression pattern of LRP6 in C2C12 cells was assayed by immunocytochemistry. Results: LRP6 was expressed only in type II fibers. Type IIc fibers showed variations in LRP6 expression. Expression of LRP6 was observed at the stage of myoblast differentiation. Conclusion: Antibody to LRP6 may be useful for identifying type II skeletal muscle fibers. LRP6 may influence glucose metabolism in type II fibers of human skeletal muscles. (C) 2014 S.

More association studies are needed to further elucidate associat

More association studies are needed to further elucidate association of different HTR2C polymorphisms and antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbance.”
“The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance

of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Taua, state of Ceara, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b

was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: selleck Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis Selumetinib albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar

animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.”
“Introduction: Secondary intramedullary nailing (SIN) following external fixation (EF) of tibial shaft fracture is controversial, notably due to the infection risk, which is not precisely known. The present buy Compound C study therefore analysed a continuous series of tibial shaft SIN, to determine (1) infection and union rates, and( 2) whether 1-stage SIN associated to EF ablation increased the risk of infection. Hypothesis: Factors exist for union and onset of infection following tibial shaft SIN. Materials and methods: A retrospective series of SIN performed between 1998 and 2012 in over 16-year-old patients with non-pathologic tibial shaft fracture was analysed. EF pin site infection was an exclusion criterion. Fractures were graded according to AO and Gustilo classifications. Study parameters were: time to SIN, 1-versus 2-stage procedure, bacteriologic results on reaming product, post-nailing onset of infection, and time to union. Results: Fifty-five patients (55 fractures) were included. There were 16 closed and 39 open fractures: 7 Gustilo type I, 26 type II and 6 type IIIA; 33 AO type A, 14 type B and 8 type C. Mean time to SIN was 9 +/- 9.

Although substantial within-site variation can exist efforts to a

Although substantial within-site variation can exist efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing JQ-EZ-05 inhibitor Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion),

as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; this website additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive + multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization

approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased test-retest (TRT) reliability for ALFF, modest reductions were observed

for other measures after post-hoc standardizations a phenomena likely attributable to MDV3100 inhibitor the separation of voxel-wise from global differences among subjects (global mean and SD demonstrated moderate TRT reliability for these measures). Finally, the present work calls into question previous observations of increased anatomical specificity for GSR over mean centering, and draws attention to the near equivalence of global and gray matter signal regression. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present knowledge of microbial community mainly focus on total sponge, the spatial distribution of microbes in sponges is rarely known, especially those with potential ecological functions. In this study, based on gene library and integral-LIBSHUFF analysis, the spatial distribution of prokaryotic symbionts and nitrogen cycling genes in the cortex and endosome sections of sponge Astrosclera willeyana were investigated.

Conclusions: Although most patients (88 2%) were identified a

\n\nConclusions: Although most patients (88.2%) were identified at LTF, ascertainment was incomplete. This was attributable to patients’ refusal to participate, loss to follow-up, or death. Delays in the registration of death data and recent privacy legislation provided further barriers. Mortality was lower for patients originally randomized to receive IFN-beta 1b rather than placebo. We recommend that all

short-term trials on chronic diseases include provisions for LTF. (Clin Ther. 2009;31:1724-1736) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc.”
“Background: The automatic tendency to attend to, positively evaluate and approach alcohol related stimuli has been found to play a causal role in problematic alcohol use and can be retrained by computerised HDAC inhibitors cancer Cognitive Bias Modification S3I-201 price (CBM). In spite of CBMs potential as an internet intervention, little is known about the efficacy of web-based CBM. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of web-based CBM in a double blind randomised controlled trial with a 2 (attention bias retraining: real versus placebo) x 2 (alcohol/no-go training: real versus placebo) x 2 (approach bias retraining: real versus placebo) factorial design.\n\nMethods/design: The effectiveness of 12 sessions of CBM will be examined among problem drinkers aged 18-65 who are randomly assigned to

one of the eight CBM conditions, after completing two modules of a validated cognitive behavioural intervention, DrinkingLess. The primary outcome measure is the change in alcohol use. It is expected that, for each of the CBM interventions, participants in the real CBM conditions will show a greater decrease in alcohol use than participants in the placebo conditions. Secondary outcome measures include the

percentage of participants drinking within the limits for sensible drinking. Possible mediating (change in automatic biases) and moderating (working memory, inhibition) factors will be examined, as will the comparative cost-effectiveness of the various CBM strategies.\n\nDiscussion: This study will be the first to test the relative efficacy of various web-based CBM strategies in problem drinkers. If proven effective, CBM could be implemented as a low-cost, low-threshold adjuvant to CBT-based online interventions for problem drinkers.”
“Breast lymphomas selleck kinase inhibitor can be primary or secondary. Among the primary lymphomas, the most common histologic types are the large B-cell diffuse lymphomas and the extranodal B mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphomas. We studied 5 cases of primary breast lymphoma in female patients. The criteria for the diagnosis were based on the proposal of Wiseman and Liao: (1) in the biopsy or surgical specimen, the lymphoma involves the breast parenchyma, and (2) nonsystemic disease at diagnosis. Clinical data, histologic findings, immunohistochemical reactions, treatment, and clinical follow-up were reviewed.

As an intuitive way to visualize and quantify dynamic processes,

As an intuitive way to visualize and quantify dynamic processes, PRAP is demonstrated first in a simple phantom study and then in a more complex measurement

involving live cells. Compared with the conventional fluorescence-based approach, PRAP provides high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) imaging with minimal bleaching-induced artifacts during the recovery stage, ideal for monitoring the diffusive and kinetic processes inside a cell. (C) 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)”
“OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the clinical consequences of mycophenolate dose reduction in renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based regimens.\n\nDATA SOURCES: DMXAA in vivo PubMed (1949-July 2010), EMBASE (1980-July 2010), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Web of Science were searched using the terms mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, dose reduction, and kidney and/or renal transplant. References from publications identified were reviewed.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies reporting on rejection rate, allograft survival, or renal function were included and ranked according to the US Preventive Services Task Force classification; excluded were studies that were dose-finding or used cyclosporine

only, involved patients on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium or those with multiorgan transplant, or provided no information on concomitant immunosuppressants. Data extracted were study design, sample size, immunosuppression regimen, KOS 953 type of transplant, and allograft outcomes.\n\nDATA

SYNTHESIS: Of 13 studies included, 1 was level I evidence, 3 were level II-2, 6 were level II-3, and 3 were level III evidence. Three focused on AZD8931 research buy tacrolimus-based regimens, whereas 7 included either cyclosporine or tacrolimus. The only prospective, randomized, multicenter trial demonstrated that early taper of mycophenolate dosage to 1 g/day can be utilized without increased risk of rejection, compared with late tapering, but the rejection rate was high (30-40%). Overall, we found conflicting evidence regarding the impact of mycophenolate dose reduction on rejection rate and allograft loss and that discontinuing mycophenolate led to an increased risk of graft loss as high as 8 fold. Allograft survival was lowest in patients with gastrointestinal complications and those in whom mycophenolate was discontinued, compared with patients with neither gastrointestinal complications nor mycophenolate discontinuation.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Weak evidence suggests that mycophenolate dose modifications, either reduction or discontinuation, may increase rejection rate and graft loss; however, this is more apparent in cyclosporine-based regimens. Prospective, well-designed trials are necessary to definitively determine the impact of dose reduction in renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based regimens.

With similar to similar to 4% of the world”s dioecious species o

With similar to similar to 4% of the world”s dioecious species occurring only there, New Caledonia should be a rich source

of new information Smoothened Agonist on the evolutionary ecology of dioecy. Realization of this potential will require both further study and concerted efforts to preserve the native flora.”
“Gangliosides located at the outer leaflet of plasma membrane are molecules that either participate in recognizing of exogenous ligand molecules or exhibit their own receptor activity, which are both essential phenomena for cell communication and signaling as well as for virus and toxin entry. Regulatory mechanisms of lipid-mediated recognition are primarily subjected to the physical status of the membrane in close vicinity of the receptor. Concerning the multivalent receptor activity of the ganglioside GMI, several regulatory strategies dealing with GM1 clustering and cholesterol involvement have been proposed. So far however, merely the isolated issues were addressed and no interplay

between them investigated. In this work, several advanced fluorescence techniques such as Z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Forster resonance energy transfer combined with TPX-0005 chemical structure Monte Carlo simulations, and a newly developed fluorescence antibunching assay were employed to give a more complex portrait of clustering and cholesterol involvement in multivalent ligand recognition of GM1. Our results indicate that membrane properties have an impact on a fraction of GM1 molecules that is not available for the ligand binding. While at low GM1 densities (similar to 1 %) it is the cholesterol

that turns GM1 headgroups invisible, at higher GM1 level (similar to 4%) it is purely the local density of GM1 molecules that inhibits the recognition. At medium GM1 content, HSP inhibitor cancer cooperation of the two phenomena occurs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nanoscale membrane organisation and signalling. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OA is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation, synovitis, and subchondral bone sclerosis. One of OAs main risk factors is obesity. To date, it is not fully understood how obesity results in OA. Historically, this link was ascribed to excessive joint loading as a result of increased body weight. However, the association between obesity and OA in non-weight-bearing joints suggests a more complex aetiology for obesity-induced OA. In the present review, the link between obesity and OA is discussed. First, the historical view of altered joint loading leading to wear and tear of the joint is addressed.