Apparently, at a rowdy meeting on the 15 July 2011, ‘Pagham resid

Apparently, at a rowdy meeting on the 15 July 2011, ‘Pagham residents and business owners packed out the village hall to protest that this snail would prevent them from strengthening sea defences and jeopardize tourism’ – though who goes there selleck chemicals as a tourist is a mystery to me. Actually, the adjoining Pagham Harbour is already a local nature reserve managed by the Sussex Wildlife Trust and does attract some tourists. But this is not what the villagers are moaning about. The problem lies in history. After the Second World War, planning restrictions, especially local ones,

were minimal and certain people thought it would be a jolly good idea to build summer homes on the bank of shingle, seaward of the original Pagham, which protected the village from the sea. Over time these have become permanent ‘homes’. As discussed in an earlier editorial (Morton,

2007), local coastal erosion and changing patterns of inshore sea currents are causing problems with Pagham’s protective shingle bank and, as a result, it and the houses atop it have to be repeatedly strengthened and safeguarded, respectively, at no small cost to the public purse. This strengthening means destruction of Defolin’s lagoon snail habitat (if it has not happened already); more importantly, the Government has said that it literally cannot keep on reinforcing, at huge cost, an area of naturally

eroding coastline that is doomed to be drowned Smad activation by the sea one day anyway. In addition to DeFolin’s lagoon snail, there are many other protected lagoon species, all tiny. Other British species, which are virtually exclusive to saline lagoons as at Pagham, are four species of stoneworts, namely, the Baltic (Chara baltica), bearded (C. canescens), foxtail (Lamprothamnium papulosum) and bird’s nest (Tolypella nidifica). In addition, there are 10 species of lagoonal animal protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Liothyronine Sodium Act, that is, the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis), Ivell’s sea anemone (Edwardsia ivelli) (thought to be already globally extinct), the trembling sea mat (Victorella pavida), the lagoon sandworm (Armandia cirrhosa), the tentacled lagoon worm (Alkmaria romijni), a hydroid (Clavopsella navis), the lagoon snail (Paludinella littorina), the lagoon sand shrimp (Gammarus insensibilis), the lagoon seaslug (Tenellia adspersa) and the Bembridge water beetle (Paracymus aeneus). If DeFolin’s lagoon snail is allowed to depart this Earth, then the above species would not be far behind it for the very simple reason that in crowded Great Britain, and especially England, coastal lagoons have virtually all but disappeared already and, as the snail demonstrates, the survivors are not far behind.

The tumor in the gastric corpus was resected using a full thickne

The tumor in the gastric corpus was resected using a full thickness resection technique with the Plicator, which has previously been reported by our group. In the other cases, a submucosal tunneling technique was used. All tumors were resected completely. Histology revealed a GIST with

low mitotic activity in case 1, a fibrotic cyst in case 2, a granulosa cell tumor in case 3 and an adenomyoma in case 4. In all cases, histology confirmed complete resection oft the tumor. No serious complications occurred. In case 1 the Plicator endoscopic sewing device was used to place two full-thickness resorbable sutures at the base of the tumor. The tumor was then resected with a snare. The two sutures ensured gastric wall patency during and after endoscopic resection of the tumor. In the other cases, a submucosal tunneling technique as previously described in the POEM procedure was used to gain Crizotinib submucosal access to the tumor. A mucosal incision selleck chemical was created 5-10 cm proximal to the tumor after lifting the mucosa by injection of a tolouidin blue and glycerosterile.

Submucosal tunneling was performed using the TT knife with spray coagulation to dissect submucosal fibres. After identifying the tumor in the submucosal tunnel it was then carefully dissected from the mucosa and extracted with a snare or a forceps. The mucosal incision was closed using standard clips or an OTSC clip. In one case, the tumor could not be separated from the muosa, so the tumor was then resected in ESD-technique. In this case series, different techniques for resection of subepithelial tumors are described. Full thickness suturing before snare resection was discribed previously to be safe and effective for resection of gastric GISTs. Submucosal tunneling and subsequent submucosal tumor resection offers a new and safe way for resection of not only esophageal but also gastric tumors.

Compared to standard ESD techniques it allows very good direct visualisation of the tumor Atorvastatin in the submucosa. In addition, it harbors the advantage of leaving the resection site covered with an intact mucosal layer and thereby minimizing the risk of peritonitis or mediastinitis in case of accidental perforation of the gastric or esophageal wall. Larger case series and clinical studies are needed to further evaluate this method. “
ectomy is a safe and effective approach to thoroughly clear SB polyps when surgery is indicated, and this combined approach of intensive small bowel surveillance may reduce the incidence of future polyp-related morbidity. “
“Although different techniques have been reported, endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors remains challenging. In this case series we discribe different approaches focusing on a submucosal tunneling technique. Between October and November 2012, 4 patients recieved endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors in the upper GI tract.

, 1989 and Feuerbacher et al , 2003) A flexible thermal strategy

, 1989 and Feuerbacher et al., 2003). A flexible thermal strategy allows honeybees to collect water at extremely variable environmental conditions. They are able to compensate

for extreme heat loss in the cold and to prevent overheating in bright sunshine at high ambient temperature. Solar heat gain is used for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase the thorax temperature to improve force production of flight muscles. A high thorax temperature also allows regulation of the head temperature JNK inhibitor molecular weight high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees’ suction pump even at low ambient temperature. This shortens the foraging stays and in turn reduces energetic costs and improves efficiency. Supported by the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF, P16584-B06, P20802-B16). We greatly appreciate the help with electronics and software by G. Stabentheiner and S.K. Hetz, with data evaluation by M. Ablasser, B. Klug, B. Maurer and G. Rauter and for technical assistance by H. Käfer. “
“Karl Erik Zachariassen in early 2009. Courtesy of NTNU (Bjørn M. Jenssen). Photo by Per Harald Olsen. Figure options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slide Karl Erik Zachariassen died

unexpectedly on December 11, 2009 in Trondheim at the age of 67. With his death we have lost a dear friend and one of the most innovative scientists within insect ecophysiology. Zachariassen Ribociclib in vitro graduated from the University of Oslo with a MSc thesis on osmoregulation of flounder in 1972. After graduation he received a Fulbright Scholarship and worked for two years

with Ted Hammel at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California. Zachariassen was always a keen entomologist and at Scripps he began his work on insect thermal physiology with a focus on beetles. Following his return from Scripps, Zachariassen became an Associate Professor Rutecarpine at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. Zachariassen obtained his Norwegian Dr. Philos. degree in 1980. He became a full Professor in 1988, and served in this position until his death. Zachariassen was a very open-minded scientist; he had a wide international network of colleagues, and he found an interest for many scientific questions that he met on his way through life, albeit mostly revolving around ecophysiology of insects and other invertebrates with excursions to ecotoxicology of marine animals and hyperthyroidism of immigrant Africans! No doubt, his main achievements are within the area of desiccation and cold tolerance of insects.

Plastic bags, rope and wooden flotsam appear to be trapped up fro

Plastic bags, rope and wooden flotsam appear to be trapped up front and while smaller objects penetrate deeper into the mangrove forest, being driven in by wind and tidal forces. Submerged beach debris collected in two 4-m wide × 25-m long transects parallel to the shore at 2–3 m depth in seagrass beds in front of the Lac public beach at Sorobon, amounted to 26 (0.5 kg) and 71 (3.6 kg) pieces of man-made litter. The surficial debris concentrations were respectively 0.26 (0.005 kg) m−2 and 0.71 (0.036 kg) items m−2. The nature of the litter collected was fully recreational,

and plastic beverage cups that are easily blown into the water, comprised 71% of all items. The documented densities are comparable to those described for unmanaged public beaches in nearby Curaçao (Nagelkerken et al., 2001, selleckchem Mar. Poll Bull. 42:786–789). Marine litter contamination is a wide-spread problem and

considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable use of the region’s marine and coastal resources. Mangrove litter and shallow submerged litter contamination figure significantly in Bonaire and we have made practical recommendations to help address these problems in a separate report to government. In presenting this synopsis here, we aim to draw scientific attention to these largely neglected facets of the litter problem and hope to see further studies to assess the extent of these problems in the Wider Caribbean. “
“As often shown in these pages, marine management is extremely complex in that it has to

accommodate multi-sectors, multi-users, multi-uses, multi-agencies and AZD6244 cell line so on (Fig. 1). It has to accommodate ‘moving-baselines’, D-malate dehydrogenase the judging of whether a marine area has changed due to small-scale, local human activities against a background of underlying change, for example due to climate change. It also has to accommodate large spatial scales and what we might call ‘unbounded-boundaries’, for example to manage an area in the temperate latitudes while considering the ecology of some of its organisms (such as birds and marine mammals) in the polar regions. As mentioned before (Elliott, 2011), there is only one big idea in marine management, including coasts and estuaries – that we have to protect and maintain the natural ecological characteristics and processes and conservation features while at the same time deliver the ecosystem services and benefits required by society. This can be regarded as The Ecosystem Approach. Previous papers (see references below), suggested that to achieve this for successful and sustainable marine management requires an interlinked set of tenets. This note explains and expands those tenets. The overarching accepted framework required to achieve the Ecosystem Approach has been described as the ‘three-legged stool’ or the ‘three pillars of sustainability’, for example for ecology, economy and society.

This fact could be related with the metabolic burden imposed to t

This fact could be related with the metabolic burden imposed to the E. coli cell by the maintenance and replication of two plasmids Panobinostat purchase which resulted in lower cell growth and PCN values, indicating a possible increase in plasmid segregational instability, which may lead to plasmid loss [14]. Although in some assays, it is possible to observe a positive correlation between total PCN values and resveratrol specific productivity (assays 2, 3, 13, and 25), there are others where the opposite relation is observed (assays 10 and 15). Therefore, it was not possible to establish a relation between

PCN and resveratrol productivity which can be due to the fact that this is a dual plasmid system and that resveratrol, being produced as an extracellular product, can be deteriorated by the culture conditions used as already discussed above. This study describes resveratrol production by E. coli BW27784 containing pAC-4CL1 and pUC-STS plasmids and the assessment of physiological states and plasmid segregational stability during bioreactor cultivation. Resveratrol yield was greatly influenced Dasatinib in vivo by culture conditions as a result of the possible interactions established between the culture conditions on opposite to a linear

variation for each condition tested and resveratrol yields. Cellular viability also showed to impact resveratrol production since growth conditions influenced physiological states. p-Coumaric acid played a critical role in resveratrol production, since it influenced the cellular viability due to interactions with the cell membrane, which affected the percentages of healthy cells and consequent

resveratrol volumetric yields. Monitoring resveratrol Amobarbital production is also important due to its ability to influence cellular viability caused by its inherent antimicrobial properties. The presence of two plasmids within the same cell influenced the final yield, because the metabolic burden generated might result in decreased cellular viability. Plasmid segregational stability evaluation revealed that no apparent relationship was obtained between plasmid copy number and resveratrol yields. In sum, this study indicates that these monitoring tools might be considered for a comprehensive application to resveratrol bioprocesses, in order to optimize and choose the most suitable design to create a valuable alternative to chemical synthesis. This work was partially funded by FEDER funds through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade–COMPETE and by National Funds through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the scope of Project “PTDC/AGR-ALI/121876/2010”. Susana Ferreira and Filomena Silva acknowledge doctoral (SFRH/BD/66857/2009) and post-doctoral (SFRH/BPD/79250/2011) fellowships from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the scope of QREN–POPH–Advanced Formation programs co-funded by Fundo Social Europeu and MEC.

While Table 1 lists the minimum change that could be associated w

While Table 1 lists the minimum change that could be associated with biologically relevant endpoints, other field studies have reported much higher changes in observed parameters. For example, populations of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to bleached kraft mill effluents had GSI, LSI and CF deviations of 30% or more relative to reference fish ( Mower et al., 2011). The power of the test, 1-β, is a third factor influencing the Selleckchem Trichostatin A number of samples to collect. The convention in environmental sciences is

that power should be at least 0.80 ( Fairweather, 1991), i.e., there should be an 80% chance of detecting a difference between sites. The power of a test can be determined easily from calculations

using similar variables as the minimum sample size (G∗Power 3 can calculate power using a different set of instructions). Obviously, collecting the minimum number of samples will give low power and increase the chances of committing a Type II error (false negative: concluding there is no impact when in fact there was one). In a multi-sample analysis of variance, the power increases rapidly with the number of samples used. Consequently, if there is an opportunity to collect a few more fish at each site, the benefit of each additional fish can be calculated using the power equations. In the present case, the n required ubiquitin-Proteasome system has been calculated for a power of 0.80 and 0.95, as under many situations it is prudent to reduce the possibility of Type II error where possible. From the perspective of environmental management, a Type II error is far more serious than a Type I error. A Type I error can be seen as a false alarm which could trigger further environmental protective measures – it is only a question of time before the mistake is realized through additional sampling. In contrast, a Type II error leading to a conclusion of ‘no impact’ would result in no remediation measures being implemented, a possible

reduction in monitoring effort, and a continuing environmental deterioration. Thus, due to a lack of statistical power, there would be continued environmental degradation. The fourth factor affecting the minimum required sample size is Interleukin-3 receptor the variability of the parameter. Biomarkers can be notoriously variable. For example, the coefficients of variation of all parameters except CF ranged from 12.6% to 127% (Table 2), while the coefficient of variation for CF averaged 6.1%. If the variability within a sampling site is great, a larger sample size will be required to detect a given difference between means (Zar, 1996). Sources of variability for a given biomarker include individual (random) variability, systematic sampling error due to confounding factors, and analytical variability.

At the time of the original study (end of last century), the phys

At the time of the original study (end of last century), the physico-chemical characterization of particles, in this case nanoscale particles in an aqueous suspension, was generally poor. Data

on hydrodynamic particle diameters or ζ potential are thus missing. Nevertheless, the approach already aimed to achieve an effective dispersion of particles in saline by stirring. Being aware of the agglomeration problem with p38 MAPK inhibitor nanoscale particles an ultrasonic treatment of 10–30 s was included. Based on today’s knowledge and the dispersion characterization, the dispersions will have had mean agglomerate sizes of about 300–500 nm. For details on treatment groups, numbers of investigated animals, and dosing regimes, see Table 2. Animals were exposed to the particle suspensions by intratracheal instillation. Due to the completely different focus of the original study, however, aimed at inducing comparable grades of chronic inflammation for all three granular

dusts, mass doses of the three particle types in the subacute, subchronic and chronic study parts were not identical (see Table 2). The administered mass doses thus depended on known Cobimetinib particle characteristics. Quartz DQ12 (highly reactive crystalline silica, triggering progressive lung injury) and Printex® 90 (carbon black) are poorly soluble dusts, whereas amorphous silica (Aerosil® 150) is a non-biopersistent dust that is eliminated relatively fast (half-life in rats approx. 1 day; rat study by Fraunhofer ITEM, 1999) and triggers acute toxicity but only temporary inflammation in the lung. Printex® 90-treated animals Pregnenolone received three times higher particle mass doses in the 3-month study part than silica-treated animals

(quartz DQ12 and Aerosil® 150). Consequently, correlations regarding expression of the genotoxicity markers between Printex® 90-treated animals and animals treated with the other particle materials were limited. However, quartz DQ12 and Aerosil® 150 were instilled at the same doses and intervals, thus enabling material-based direct comparison of the data. As the ratios of doses of the different dusts also varied between the 3-month and lifetime study parts, correlations of genotoxicity marker expression and tumor data could be evaluated only with certain restrictions. For immunohistochemical detection of the chosen genotoxicity markers in lung tissue, 3-μm paraffin sections were cut from the lung material, using one block of the left lung lobe for each animal, and were mounted on glass slides. Paraffin sections were then dewaxed and subject to DNA hydrolysis with 4 N HCl and the corresponding antigen retrieval methods, which had been validated for each of the primary antibodies. The primary antibodies used comprised protein A column-purified mouse monoclonal antibody 10 H (generous gift from Prof. A.

A dureza hepática pode ser sobrestimada na presença de necroinfla

A dureza hepática pode ser sobrestimada na presença de necroinflamação acentuada, na colestase e na presença see more de congestão hepática10, 11 and 12. Valores muito elevados de aminotransferases, o IMC aumentado, a esteatose e a síndroma metabólico são outros

fatores descritos. Contudo, o seu significado como fatores independentes a influenciar o resultado do FS mantém‐se controverso. Monica Platon et al., numa série de 1.202 doentes com hepatite C submetidos a biopsia hepática, demonstraram como único fator independente a influenciar os resultados do FS a presença de valores elevados de ALT13. Os mesmos resultados foram observados na hepatite B14 and 15. O exame está contra indicado em situações de hepatite aguda e também na presença de ascite5. Dauzat et al. usando doppler não invasivo, verificaram que a ingestão de alimentos induzia alterações na circulação hepática e esplâncnica em indivíduos normais16, também descrito em doentes com hipertensão portal associada à cirrose hepática17. A influência da ingestão de alimentos na acuidade diagnóstica do FS© em doentes com doença hepática 5-FU mw crónica foi o tema do trabalho de Caetano et al., publicado nesta revista. Trata‐se de um estudo prospetivo em que a elastografia hepática foi realizada em jejum e após 30‐60 minutos da ingestão de uma refeição padronizada. Foram estudados 42 doentes com hepatite B crónica, 26 com hepatite C crónica sem biopsia hepática e 42 controlos. Apesar de ser um estudo com menor

número de doentes, contrariamente ao estudo multicêntrico de Arena et al.18

teve a vantagem de ter sido realizado num único centro por 2 operadores experientes, sendo sempre o mesmo operador a realizar o exame pré e pós‐prandial no mesmo indivíduo. Esta metodologia impediu a variabilidade dependente do operador inerente a esta técnica. Contudo, não fizeram comparação com o resultado da biopsia hepática como no trabalho de Arena et al., o melhor padrão para diagnóstico dos estádios da fibrose. Mederacke et al.19 usaram uma metodologia semelhante à de Caetano et al., com uma casuística de características semelhantes, uma vez que o estudo se realizou Lonafarnib manufacturer num único centro com um número de doentes semelhante, inclusão de um grupo controlo e execução da técnica por um único investigador experiente, mas não foram realizadas biopsias hepáticas. A metodologia estatística escolhida para avaliação dos resultados foi diferente, o que explica as conclusões contraditórias destes 2 trabalhos. Mederacke et al. compararam médias dos resultados, quando está provado que a elasticidade não é uma variável de distribuição normal5. Utilizaram testes não paramétricos para análise da variabilidade intra‐individual da elasticidade hepática, extrapolando assim que a variação do FS© pré e pós‐prandial no mesmo indivíduo não foi normal, o que me faz discordar profundamente deste conceito. Esta opção metodológica acompanhou outros trabalhos20 e contribuiu para a disparidade de conclusões. Caetano et al.

Aż 50–80% wszystkich aktywnych seksualnie kobiet ulega zakażeniu

Aż 50–80% wszystkich aktywnych seksualnie kobiet ulega zakażeniu HPV przynajmniej raz w życiu [11, 12, 13]. Z uwagi na wewnątrzkomórkowy cykl replikacji HPV, głównie w powierzchniowych warstwach nabłonka, EPZ015666 price oraz brak wiremii, immunogenność wirusa podczas naturalnego zakażenia jest mała, a przebycie zakażenia nie zapewnia długotrwałej odporności i nie chroni przed kolejnym zakażeniem HPV należącym do tego samego lub innego typu [14]. Zdecydowana większość zakażeń HPV (70–80%) ustępuje jednak samoistnie w wyniku prawidłowej odpowiedzi immunologicznej w okresie od kilku

miesięcy do dwóch lat, nie wywołując zauważalnych objawów lub trwałych następstw [3, 15]. Utrzymywanie się zakażenia HPV dłużej niż 24 miesiące jest związane z wirusem o wysokim potencjale onkogennym. Według wytycznych WHO oraz wielu międzynarodowych i krajowych

towarzystw naukowych (ginekologicznych, onkologicznych), optymalna profilaktyka raka szyjki macicy obejmuje zarówno profilaktykę pierwotną (doradztwo oraz szczepienia), w celu zapobiegania zakażeniom HPV, należącym do wysoce onkogennych typów, oraz profilaktykę wtórną (wczesne wykrywanie dysplazji i raka – przesiewowe badania cytologiczne) i leczenie nieprawidłowości w obrębie błony śluzowej szyjki macicy [16, 17, 18, 19]. Warunkiem powodzenia realizacji programów profilaktycznych jest budowanie świadomości społeczeństwa w zakresie możliwości zapobiegania i wczesnego wykrywania oraz leczenia choroby. W realizacji tego zadania ważną rolę spełniają buy APO866 także pediatrzy i lekarze rodzinni. W 2006 i 2007 roku European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) zarejestrowała i dopuściła do stosowania w Europie (w tym w Polsce) dwie szczepionki przeznaczone do profilaktyki Urease zmian przednowotworowych szyjki macicy oraz raka szyjki macicy, związanych przyczynowo z zakażeniem HPV. Były to odpowiednio Silgard [20] (firmy MSD) oraz Cervarix [21] (firmy GSK). Charakterystykę obu szczepionek przedstawiono w tabeli

2. Kilkuletnie (od 3 do 6 lat) obserwacje w ramach badań klinicznych wskazują, że szczepienie pierwotne (3 dawki) zmniejsza ryzyko rozwoju stanu przedrakowego szyjki macicy, a szczepienie kobiet niezakażonych HPV jest 2–3-krotnie skuteczniejsze niż szczepienie przeciętnej populacji kobiet aktywnych seksualnie, w której znaczący odsetek już jest zakażony (tab. 2). U kobiet zakażonych HPV określonego typu szczepienie jest bowiem nieskuteczne w profilaktyce zmian przedrakowych i raka wywołanego tym typem HPV [2]. Długotrwała ochrona po szczepieniu ma istotne znaczenie ze względu na ryzyko zakażenia HPV utrzymujące się przez cały okres aktywności seksualnej. Aktualnie nie zaleca się podawania dawek przypominających ani szczepionki Cervarix, ani Silgard [29, 30, 43], jednak obserwacje kliniczne nadal trwają. Nie wykryto do tej pory markera immunologicznego korelującego z kliniczną ochroną przed przetrwałym zakażeniem HPV oraz CIN2+ i rakiem.

In the tumor of the treated animal, an increasing deviation betwe

In the tumor of the treated animal, an increasing deviation between the measurements and the fitted curves was observed from day 2 onwards, between 500 and 800 nm. This indicates that fluorophores other than the ones included in the standard fit model (collagen, elastin, NADH, and FAD) were

measured. This additional fluorescence activity buy Panobinostat (from now on called fluorescence residual) was seen in all the treated tumors at days 4 and 7. The longitudinal kinetics for each model-fitted AFS parameter and the calculated fluorescence residual across all treated and control animals are shown in Figure 4. The plotted linear trend for the fluorescence residual in tumor was significantly different between the treated and the control groups (P = .018). No significant trends were observed for the total fluorescence intensity, collagen + elastin, and the optical redox ratio. Figure 5 shows the longitudinal check details changes of the fluorescence residual in tumor, liver,

and muscle across all animals from both groups. The additional fluorescence is not present in muscle and liver tissues, indicating a tumor-specific effect. In an attempt to better understand the origin of the additional autofluorescent emission (mainly above 600 nm) seen in the treated animals, two-photon confocal fluorescence microscopy images recorded in a spectral range of 600 to 700 nm were compared with adjacent tissue sections that were stained with HE (Figure 6). The samples were collected after 1 week of follow-up, i.e., when the differences seen in AFS signals were maximal. In the treated tumor samples, numerous fluorescent foci were present. These foci correlated with cellular structures rather than with collagen deposits or necrotic areas. It remains to be determined

whether this specific fluorescence originated from stromal or tumor cells. Ixazomib clinical trial For the two-photon images recorded in the spectral ranges 400 to 500 nm and 500 to 600 nm, no considerable differences were seen when comparing both groups. The evaluation of pathologic response of tumors to cisplatin using various histologic dyes and immunohistochemical biomarkers is illustrated in Figure 7. A strong increase in nuclear DNA damage was seen 24 hours after cisplatin administration using γ-H2AX as a marker. From day 2 onwards, a significant decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 and an increase in apoptosis-related cell death (CC3 marker) were observed. Analysis of MT-stained slides showed increased amounts of fibrotic tissue 4 to 7 days after treatment that corresponded to the HE images. An increase in lipids (Oil Red O) was seen over time. In Figure 8, A and B, fractions of vital, necrotic, and fibrotic tumor tissues for both groups are shown as quantified on the HE-stained tissue slides.