To investigate the genetic basis of MV adaptation to its new host

To investigate the genetic basis of MV adaptation to its new host, we sequenced the genome of 6918, an attenuated Spanish field strain, and compared it with that of Lausanne, the strain originally released in Europe in 1952. Although isolated 43 years apart, the genomes were highly conserved (99.95% identical). Only 32 of the 159 MV predicted proteins revealed amino acid changes. Four genes (M009L, M036L, M135R, and M148R) in 6918 were disrupted by frameshift mutations.”
“IL-1 beta is a proinflammatory Bromosporine manufacturer cytokine that contributes to psychological stress responses and has been implicated in various psychiatric

disorders most notably depression. Preclinical studies also demonstrate that IL-1 beta modulates anxiety- and fear-related behaviors, although these findings are difficult to assess because IL-1 beta infusions influence locomotor activity and nociception. Here we demonstrate that MLN2238 mouse IL-1RI null mice exhibit a behavioral phenotype consistent with a decrease in anxiety-related behaviors. This includes significant effects in the elevated plus maze, light-dark, and novelty-induced hypophagia tests compared to wild-type mice, with no differences in locomotor activity. With regard to fear conditioning, IL-1RI null mice showed more freezing in auditory and contextual fear conditioning

tests, and there was no effect on pain sensitivity. Taken together, the results indicate that the IL-1 beta/IL-1RI signaling pathway induces anxiety-related Taselisib behaviors and impairs fear memory. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent work has suggested that inflammation is a common component of a number of age-related

diseases. The hypothesis of the present study was that normal aging of the retina and choroid would increase levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). To investigate this hypothesis, gene expression and protein analyses were completed on retinal and choroidal samples from Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats at 8, 22, and 32 months of age. Aging of the choroid produced significant increases in PGE2, with decreased TNF-alpha protein. Protein levels and messenger RNA of iNOS and TNF-alpha protein levels were significantly decreased in the aging retina in contrast to PGE2 protein activity, which was increased with age in the retina. These results suggest that PGE2 is likely involved in the aging process in both the retina and choroid, whereas iNOS plays a role predominantly in the retina.”
“Despite the high prevalence and clinical significance of bipolar II disorder (BD II), the underlying pathophysiology is not well explored in previous studies. The purpose of the current study was to investigate brain gray matter abnormalities in BD II.

We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between prov

We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once

the control of viremia has been established or whether selective pressure PF-4708671 ic50 impacts this evolution. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in ES often targets Gag and frequently is superior to that of HIV-1 progressors, partially due to the HLA class I alleles B*57/5801 and B*27, which are overrepresented in ES. We therefore examined longitudinal plasma and proviral gag sequences from HLA-B*57/5801 and -B*27 ES. Despite the highly conserved nature of gag, we observed clear evidence of evolution in the plasma virus, largely due to synonymous substitutions. In contrast, evolution was rare in proviral clones, suggesting that ongoing replication in find more ES does not permit the significant reseeding of the latent reservoir. Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some

ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution.”
“Considerable evidence indicates that native neuronal voltage-gated K+ (Kv) currents reflect the functioning of macromolecular Kv channel complexes, composed of pore-forming (alpha)-subunits, cytosolic and transmembrane accessory subunits, together with regulatory and scaffolding proteins. The individual components of these macromolecular complexes appear to influence the stability, the trafficking, GANT61 nmr the localization and/or the biophysical properties of the channels. Recent studies suggest that Kv channel accessory subunits subserve multiple roles in the generation of native neuronal Kv channels. Additional recent findings suggest that Kv channel accessory subunits can respond to changes in intracellular Ca2+ or metabolism and thereby integrate signaling pathways to regulate

Kv channel expression and properties. Although studies in heterologous cells have provided important insights into the effects of accessory subunits on Kv channel expression/properties, it has become increasingly clear that experiments in neurons are required to define the physiological roles of Kv channel accessory and associated proteins. A number of technological and experimental hurdles remain that must be overcome in the design, execution and interpretation of experiments aimed at detailing the functional roles of accessory subunits and associated proteins in the generation of native neuronal Kv channels. With the increasing association of altered Kv channel functioning with neurological disorders, the potential impact of these efforts is clear. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Because the distribution of the NK1 and NK3 expressing neurons ov

Because the distribution of the NK1 and NK3 expressing neurons overlaps, co-expression for PX-478 solubility dmso both receptors was tested. By double labeling, we show that NK1 and NK3 were not co-expressed in NTS neurons. In the DMV, most of neurons (87%) were immunoreactive for only one of the receptors and 34% of NK1 neurons, 7% of NK3 neurons and 12% of NK1-NK3 neurons were cholinergic neurons. None of the neurons immunoreactive for NK1 or NK3 were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting that catecholaminergic cells of the NTS (A2 and C2 groups) did not express neurokinin receptors. The presence of NK1 and NK3 was examined in GABAergic interneurons of the NTS

and DMV by using GAD65-EGFP transgenic mouse. Immunoreactivity for NK1 or NK3 was found in a subpopulation of GAD65-EGFP cells. A majority (60%) of NK3 cells, but only 11% of the NK1 cells, were GAD65-EGFP cells.


conclusion, tachykinins, through differential expression of neurokinin receptors, may influence the central regulation of vital functions by acting on separate neuron sub-populations in NTS and DMV. Of particular interest, tachykinins may be involved in inhibitory mechanisms by acting directly on local GABAergic interneurons. Our results support a larger contribution of NK3 compared with NK1 in mediating inhibition in NTS and DMV. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper we present Idasanutlin a combinatorial model of sequence to shape maps. Our particular construction arises in the context of representing SBI-0206965 in vivo nucleotide interactions beyond Watson-Crick base pairs and its key feature is to replace biophysical steric by combinatorial constraints. We show that

these combinatory maps produce exponentially many shapes and induce sets of sequences which contain extended connected subgraphs of diameter n, where n denotes the length of the sequence. Our main result is to prove the existence of exponentially many shapes that have neutral networks. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The extracellular concentration of guanidinoacetate (GAA) in the brain increases in guanidino acetate methyl transferase (GAMT) deficiency, an inherited disorder. We tested whether the levels which this substance can reach in the brain in GAMT deficiency are able to activate GABA(A) receptors in key cerebellar neurons such as the cerebellar granules.

GAA in fact activates these receptors in rat cerebellar granules in culture although at quite high concentrations, in the millimolar range. However, these millimolar GAA levels are not reached extracellularly in the brain in GAMT deficiency. In addition, GAA does not act as a partial agonist on granules’ GABA(A) receptors. This appears to deny an effect by this molecule on cerebellar function in the disease via interference with granule cells’ GABAA receptors.

These results suggest that VCP contributes to

These results suggest that VCP contributes to Veliparib order virulence

by dampening both antibody and T cell responses. This work provides insight into how modulation of complement by poxviruses contributes to virulence and demonstrates that a pathogen-encoded complement regulatory protein can modulate adaptive immunity.”
“BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is the most widely used neurosurgical procedure for the management of hydrocephalus.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our long-term single-institution experience in the management of adult hydrocephalus patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

METHODS: Adult patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for hydrocephalus from October 1990 to October 2009 were included. Medical charts, operative reports, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up evaluations were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively for clinical outcome in adult hydrocephalus patients.

RESULTS: A total of 683 adult patients were included in the study. The most common etiologies of hydrocephalus include idiopathic (29%), tumors and cysts (20%), post-craniotomy (13%),

SC75741 in vitro and subarachnoid hemorrhage (13%). The overall shunt failure rate was 32%, and the majority (74%) of shunt revisions occurred within the first 6 months. The median time to first shunt revision was 9.31 months. Etiology of hydrocephalus showed a significant impact on the incidence of shunt revision/failure and on the median time to shunt revision. Similarly, the type of hydrocephalus had a significant effect on the incidence

of shunt failure and the median time to shunt revision.

CONCLUSION: A large proportion of patients (32%) experience shunt failure after shunt placement for hydrocephalus. Although the overall incidence of shunt revision was comparable to previously reported studies, the fact that a large proportion of adult populations with shunt placement experience shunt failure is a concern.”
“The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a isolate JFH1 represents the only cloned HCV wild-type sequence capable of efficient replication in cell culture as well as in vivo. Previous reports have pointed to NS5B, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a major determinant for efficient replication of this isolate. To understand the find more contribution of the JFH1 NS5B gene at the molecular level, we aimed at conferring JFH1 properties to NS5B from the closely related J6 isolate. We created intragenotypic chimeras in the NS5B regions of JFH1 and J6 and compared replication efficiency in cell culture and RdRp activity of the purified proteins in vitro, revealing more than three independent mechanisms conferring the role of JFH1 NS5B in efficient RNA replication. Most critical was residue I405 in the thumb domain of the polymerase, which strongly stimulated replication in cell culture by enhancing overall de novo RNA synthesis.

On-site scratching

excited neurons, followed by a signifi

On-site scratching

excited neurons, followed by a significant post-scratch decrease in 5-HT-evoked firing. Most neurons additionally responded to mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate). Off-site scratching had no effect, while EPZ004777 on-site scratching excited the neurons. These results indicate that scratching exerts a state-dependent inhibitory effect on responses of spinal neurons to pruritic but not algesic stimuli. Moreover, on-site scratching first excited neurons followed by inhibition, while off-site scratching immediately evoked the inhibition of pruritogen-evoked activity. This accounts for the suppression of itch by scratching at a distance from the site of the itchy stimulus. (c) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Metabolism inhibitor Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A common polymorphism of the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) gene has been associated with cortisol levels after dexamethasone. However, if and how this MR gene variant affects basal cortisol secretion throughout the day is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine the association between the MR gene polymorphism -2G/C (rs2070951) and salivary cortisol measured

at four time points during the day in the Stress, Atherosclerosis, and ECG Study (STRATEGY). We recruited healthy adults from the general population (n = 133, distributed equally across four age groups, 30-70 years). Salivary cortisol was assessed at

0800, 1200, 1600 and 2200 h. We found a significant effect of genotype FRAX597 chemical structure indicating that homozygous G allele carriers had higher overall salivary cortisol levels (F = 4.5, p = 0.01). Furthermore, we found a significant time x group interaction indicating that the group effect was predominantly driven by higher 0800 h salivary cortisol levels in G/G homozygotes (F = 2.9, p = 0.02). Participants homozygous for the G allele also had greater area under the curve (AUC) cortisol secretion compared to C allele carriers (F = 6.4, p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that being homozygous for the G allele of the MR gene polymorphism -2G/G is associated with higher cortisol levels in healthy adults, especially in the morning during peak cortisol secretion. This polymorphism may contribute to the interindividual variability in stress responsiveness and might be involved in stress-related disorders. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that regulates immune and cell-survival signaling pathways. NF-kappa B has been reported to be present in neurons wherein it reportedly responds to immune and toxic stimuli, glutamate, and synaptic activity. However, because the brain contains many cell types, assays specifically measuring neuronal NF-kappa B activity are difficult to perform and interpret.


“THE FRONTOBASAL INTERHEMISPHERIC APPROACH for suprasellar tumors currently incorporates technological advancements and refinements in

patient selection, operative technique, and postoperative care. This technique is a valid choice for the removal of suprasellar lesions with extension into the third ventricle without major sequelae related to the surgical approach. The method described here reflects the combination of the frontal interhemispheric and trans-lamina terminalis approaches.”
“Objectives. Older adults may experience weight changes upon retirement for a number of reasons, such as being less physically active; having less structured meal times; and consuming food in response to losing personal identity, the potential for social interactions,

or the sense of accomplishment derived from working. The purpose of this study was to determine whether retirement was associated with either weight gain or weight loss.

Methods. We used the 1994-2002 Health and Retirement Study to determine whether LY2874455 clinical trial retirement between biennial interviews was associated with weight change, separately for men (n = 1,966) and women (n = 1,759). We defined weight change as a 5% increase or decrease in body mass index between interviews.

Results. We did not find a significant association between retirement and weight change among men. Women who retired were more likely to gain weight than women who continued to work at least 20 hr per week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.48). We found a significant relationship between retirement and weight gain only for women who were normal weight upon retiring (OR = 1.30, 95% Cl = 1.01-1.69) and who retired from blue-collar jobs (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.13-2.21).

Discussion. SB431542 Public health interventions may be indicated for women, particularly those working in blue-collar occupations, in order to prevent weight gain upon

“OBJECTIVE: During the past decade, management of posterior circulation aneurysms has shifted away from microsurgery. Currently, microsurgical clipping is considered a primary, competitive alternative to endovascular coiling, or rrore commonly, a secondary alternative when endovascular therapy is unfavorable. We present a large, multidisciplinary team experience with posterior circulation aneulysms in an institution that continues to use microsurgery as a primary treatment modali:y for selected aneurysms.

METHODS: During a 9-year period, 217 patients with 228 posterior circulation aneurysms were treated microsurgically; they included 106 basilar bifuilcation, 27 posterior cerebral artery, 23 superior cerebellar artery, eight anteroinferior c’erebellar artery, five basiartery aneurysms.

Although both the pH1N1 viruses and the IA30 virus caused lung le

Although both the pH1N1 viruses and the IA30 virus caused lung lesions, the pH1N1 viruses were shed from the nasal cavities of challenged pigs whereas the IA30 virus was not. Global gene expression analysis indicated PF-4708671 mw that transcriptional responses of the viruses were distinct. pH1N1-infected pigs had an upregulation of genes related to

inflammatory and immune responses at day 3 postinfection that was not seen in the IA30 infection, and expression levels of genes related to cell death and lipid metabolism at day 5 postinfection were markedly different from those of IA30 infection. These results indicate that both pH1N1 isolates are more virulent due in part to differences in the host transcriptional response during acute infection. Our study also

indicates that pH1N1 does not need prior adaptation to infect pigs, has a high potential to be maintained in naive swine populations, and might reassort with currently circulating swine influenza viruses.”
“A LDK378 manufacturer solid phase- and chemical crosslinking-based technology was developed for determining the depths at which various protein constituents reside in a supramolecule. The usefulness of this technology was verified by trials using a synthetic three-protein complex on glass coverslips. This technology was further applied to investigate the localization of seven major protein components in the postsynaptic density, a landmark supramolecule of the excitatory synapses in mammalian brains. The technology reported here will supplement the already powerful proteomic methodologies in studying the structure/function relationships of supramolecules.”
“Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a reference MRI technique for the evaluation of neurological disorders. Few publications have investigated the application of DWI for inflammatory demyelinating lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of acute, spinal demyelinating lesions.

Six consecutive patients (two males, four females; aged 28-64 years) with acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions were studied in a prospective case series design from June 2009 to

October 2010. We performed magnetic resonance imaging studies from 2 to 14 days from symptom onset on the patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis ERK inhibitor (n = 3) or clinically isolated syndrome (n = 3). Main outcome measures were diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient pattern (ADC) of acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions.

All spinal lesions showed a restricted diffusion pattern (DWI+/ADC-) with a 24% median ADC signal decrease. A good correlation between clinical presentation and lesion site was observed.

Acute demyelinating spinal cord lesions show a uniform restricted diffusion pattern. Clinicians and neuro-radiologists should be aware that this pattern is not necessarily confirmatory for an ischaemic aetiology.

Splice site SA3358 is immediately followed by 15 potential bindin

Splice site SA3358 is immediately followed by 15 potential binding sites for the splicing factor ASF/SF2. Recombinant ASF/SF2 binds to the cluster of ASF/SF2 sites. URMC-099 Mutational inactivation of all 15 sites abolished splicing to SA3358 and redirected splicing to the downstream-located, late 3 ‘-splice site SA5639. Overexpression of a mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain, also totally inhibited the usage of SA3358 and

redirected splicing to the late 3 ‘-splice site SA5639. The 15 ASF/SF2 binding sites could be replaced by an ASF/SF2-dependent, HIV-1-derived splicing enhancer named GAR. This enhancer was also inhibited by the mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain. Finally, silencer RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ASF/SF2 caused a reduction in spliced HPV-16 mRNA levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate buy Cl-amidine that the major HPV-16 3 ‘-splice site SA3358 is dependent on ASF/SF2. SA3358 is used by the most abundantly expressed HPV-16 mRNAs, including those encoding E6 and E7. High levels of ASF/SF2 may therefore be a requirement for progression to cervical cancer. This is supported by our earlier findings that ASF/SF2 is overexpressed in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer.”
“Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess the effects of prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction on spinal

cord synapses using H-reflex. Methods: 33 babies were investigated at birth. 14 were full term appropriate

for gestational age (FT AGA), 10 were full term intrauterine growth restricted (FT IUGR) and 9 were preterm appropriate for gestational age (PT AGA). The maximum amplitude of H-reflex (Hmax), H-reflex latency (HAL), H/M ratio, H-reflex conduction velocity (HRCV), and H-reflex response to double stimuli (conditioning and test) for H-reflex recovery cycle (HRRC) were recorded in right lower limb (soleus muscle) in all the three groups. Results: Percentage recovery values of H-reflex were significantly higher in FT AGA and FT IUGR babies compared to PT AGA neonates for most of inter-stimulus intervals. No significant differences were observed in H-reflex parameters between selleck products FT AGA and FT IUGR groups, but HRL and HRCV were significantly affected in PT AGA group. Conclusions: Delayed H-reflex recovery in preterms may be due to a prolonged state of neurotransmitter delay in la terminals following initial activation by the conditioning stimuli. The cause of such prolonged depletion of neurotransmitters could be attributed to a poor neurotransmitter store in synaptic vesicles of spinal cord in preterm neonates. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“The Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) contains several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode proteins capable of initiating and modulating cellular signaling pathways. Among them is ORF K15, encoding a 12-transmembrane-spanning protein with a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain.

In this study we have investigated the effect of prolyl hydroxyla

In this study we have investigated the effect of prolyl hydroxylase inhibition on synaptic activity in hippocampal slices and compared this to the changes occurring following exposure to hypoxia. Furthermore, we investigated a potentially protective role for hydroxylase inhibition

against a glutamate-induced ischemic Tozasertib cost insult in the CA1 region of organotypic hippocampal cultures. Application of the hydroxylase inhibitor, dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG), depressed synaptic transmission. Both hypoxia and DMOG induced a reversible reduction in synaptic transmission, enhanced paired pulse facilitation (P<0.05) and inhibited N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity (P<0.01). However the effects of DMOG were adenosine A, receptor independent.

Our results also suggest a potential therapeutic application for prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors in cerebral ischemia, since DMOG protected the CA1 region in organotypic hippocampal slices against a glutamate-induced ischemic insult. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent meta-analyses showed consistently elevated levels of S100B in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients. This finding has been attributed to glial pathology because S100B is produced by astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. However, S100B may be likewise associated with schizophrenia-related disturbances in glial cell as well as adipocyte energy supply and glucose

Cyclosporin A learn more metabolism. The influence of antipsychotic drugs on S100B levels remains unclear, and some studies have suggested that treatment with these drugs may actually contribute to the elevated S100B levels observed in schizophrenic patients. In this study, we explored the effects of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol and the atypical prototype drug clozapine on the release of S100B by astrocytic C6 cells and oligodendrocytic OLN-93 cells. Because of the association between schizophrenia and disturbances in energy metabolism, we assessed the effects of these drugs under basal condition (BC) compared to serum and glucose deprivation (SGD). We found that treatment of C6 and OLN-93 cells with haloperidol and clozapine reduced the release of S100B from C6 and OLN-93 cells under BC and SGD in vitro at a tissue concentration corresponding to the assumed therapeutic dose range of these drugs. These data suggest that elevated levels of S100B in bodily fluids of schizophrenic patients are normalized rather than increased by the effects of antipsychotic drugs on glial cells. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To understand further how oligodendrocytes regulate brain function, the mechanism of communication between oligodendrocytes and other cell types needs to be explored.

We evaluated the effect of Lyn Delta N overexpression on imatinib

We evaluated the effect of Lyn Delta N overexpression on imatinib sensitivity of the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell

line K562. Therefore, we generated stable cells that express plasmids encoding Lyn Delta N or its catalytically inactive counterpart AG-120 cost Lyn Delta NKD. We established that Lyn is cleaved in imatinib-treated parental K562 cells in a caspase-dependent manner. Lyn cleavage also occurred following BCR-ABL silencing by specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA). Imatinib-induced apoptosis was abrogated in Lyn Delta N-overexpressing cells, but not in cells overexpressing its inactive counterpart. Conversely, the overexpression of Lyn Delta N failed to affect the differentiation of K562 cells. Importantly, the protective effect of Lyn Delta N was suppressed by two inhibitors of Lyn activity. Lyn Delta N also inhibits imatinib-mediated SC75741 mw caspase-3 activation in the small proportion of nilotinib-resistant K562 cells overexpressing Lyn that can engage an apoptotic program upon imatinib stimulation.

Finally, Lyn knockdown by sh-RNA altered neither imatinib-mediated apoptosis nor differentiation. Taken together, our data show that the caspase-cleaved form of Lyn exerts a negative feedback on imatinib-mediated CML cell apoptosis that is entirely dependent on its kinase activity and likely on the BCR-ABL pathway. Leukemia (2009) 23, 1500-1506; doi:10.1038/leu.2009.60; Pitavastatin published online 2 April 2009″
“Cervical spinal cord hemisection at C2 leads to paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm in rats. Respiratory function of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm can be restored by activating a latent respiratory

motor pathway in adult rats. This pathway is called the crossed phrenic pathway and the restored activity in the paralyzed hemidiaphragm is referred to as crossed phrenic activity. The latent neural pathway is not latent in neonatal rats as shown by the spontaneous expression of crossed phrenic activity. However, the anatomy of the pathway in neonatal rats is still unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that the crossed phrenic pathway may be different anatomically in neonatal and adult rats. To delineate this neural pathway in neonates, we injected wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), a retrograde transsynaptic tracer, into the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection. We also injected cholera toxin subunit B-horseradish peroxidase (BHRP) into the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm following hemisection in other animals to determine if there are midline-crossing phrenic dendrites involved in the crossed phrenic pathway in neonatal rats. The WGA-HRP labeling was observed only in the ipsilateral phrenic nucleus and ipsilateral rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) in the postnatal day (P) 2, P7, and P28 hemisected rats. Bilateral labeling of rVRG neurons was shown in P35 rats.