The findings stress the need for more active direction to strengt

The findings stress the need for more active direction to strengthen Selleckchem AZD8186 active surveillance and passive adverse event reporting systems to augment

the issuance of guidance documents.”
“The effects of jam processing on total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacities of fresh Rubus coreanus Miguel (bokbunja) fruits at various pH levels were investigated. Aqueous methanol of 80%(v/v) was found to be the most efficient solvent for extracting phenolics in fruits and jams. More than 90% of total phenolics, antioxidant capacities, and total flavonoids were retained after processing, while approximately 35% of total anthocyanins were lost. Among various pH treatments, jams prepared at pH 2.0-3.0 lost 33-35% of total anthocyanins, while treatments at pH 3.5-4.0 degraded 40-48% of total anthocyanins. Among the various treatments between pH 2.0 and 4.0, jam prepared at pH 3 had the highest sensory scores and overall acceptability. The results suggest that jam making with fruits rich in anthocyanins at lower pH may protect bioactive anthocyanins from thermal processing.”
“Background: Knockdown resistance in insects ALK assay resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage gated Na+ channel (VGSC) is one of the mechanisms

of resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Recently a point mutation leading to Leu-to-Phe substitution in the VGSC at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in Anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent. This study reports the TGF-beta inhibitor presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the VGSC of an An. culicifacies population from Malkangiri district of Orissa, India.

Methods: Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato (s.l.) samples, collected from a population of Malkangiri district of Orissa (India), were sequenced

for part of the second transmembrane segment of VGSC and analyzed for the presence of non-synonymous mutations. A new primer introduced restriction analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR) was developed for the detection of the new mutation L1014S. The An. culicifacies population was genotyped for the presence of L1014F substitution by an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and for L1014S substitutions by using a new PIRA-PCR developed in this study. The results were validated through DNA sequencing.

Results: DNA sequencing of An. culicifacies individuals collected from district Malkangiri revealed the presence of three amino acid substitutions in the IIS6 transmembrane segments of VGSC, each one resulting from a single point mutation. Two alternative point mutations, 3042A>T transversion or 3041T>C transition, were found at residue L1014 leading to Leu (TTA)-to-Phe (TTT) or -Ser (TCA) changes, respectively. A third and novel substitution, Val (GTG)-to-Leu (TTG or CTG), was identified at residue V1010 resulting from either of the two transversions-3028G>T or 3028G>C.

Stability trials up to 6 months displayed excellent reproducibili

Stability trials up to 6 months displayed excellent reproducibility.”
“Purpose The aim of the study was to examine patient-reported symptoms and self-care strategies in Thai patients with cancer

Methods The study was descriptive using a cross-sectional design It was carried out at the National Cancer Institute Thailand (Bangkok Lopburi) 202 patients undergoing combined

radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT-CT) n = 52 or CT alone n = 103 or RT alone n = 47 participated Data was collected with the use of a 25-item Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist TRSC (Thai) a Self-Care Method scale the Karnofsky Scale and a Health Data form

Results Patients on combined RT-CT reported more symptoms on the TRSC with greater severity than P505-15 those receiving RT or CT alone (F = 72 p < 0 01) and lower Karnofsky score (F = 42 p < 0 05) Karnofsky and TRSC scores were inversely correlated Using complementary care categories self-care methods reported were six types (a) Diet/nutrition/life-style changes (e g modify food) to manage Eating and Fatigue symptoms (b) Mind/Body Control to relieve Fatigue and other symptoms (c) Biologic treatment (e g vitamins) for eating

difficulties (d) SHP099 Herbal treatments for hair loss (e) Other methods and (f) taking prescribed medicines to control pain and other symptoms Some patients reported doing nothing as coping

Conclusions Self-care Including complementary care use as an adjunct to cancer treatments could help patients deal with the side effects of therapy Assessment of symptoms using the TRSC (Thai) version and their alleviation could enable the health care providers to enhance patients

coping during cancer treatments (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“The “”endocannabinoid system (ECS)”" comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid WZB117 in vitro receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.”
“The effects of terpenes on the release and permeation of ofloxacin and lidocaine from moisture-activated composite patches were investigated. Ofloxacin without enhancers showed very low permeation rate (0.58 g/cm2/hr), and the addition of cineole enhanced the permeation flux 14.1-times; /-menthol and d-limonene increased it 4.7- and 3.5-times, respectively.

The aim of this study is to test whether IL-18 polymorphisms coul

The aim of this study is to test whether IL-18 polymorphisms could act as genetic markers for renal stone disease. Material and methods. A control group of 104 healthy subjects, and 272 patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones were examined. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction endonuclease analysis was used to detect IL-18 polymorphisms. Results. The patient and control groups differed significantly in genotypic expression of the IL-18 + 105A/C polymorphism. The prevalence of the A/C + C/C genotypes in the patients was higher than that in the controls. The allelic frequency

of IL-18 + 105A/C differed significantly between VS-6063 mouse the patients and the controls. The odds ratio (OR) of the A/C heterozygote of IL-18 + 105A/C associated with urolithiasis was 2.772. The OR of the A/C + C/C genotypes of IL-18 + 105A/C associated with urolithiasis was 3.097. The OR per copy of the C allele of IL-18+105A/C associated with urolithiasis was 4.143. There were also significant differences Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor in the prevalence of genotype IL-18-137G/C polymorphisms between the patients and controls. The distribution of the G/G homozygote in the patients was higher than that in the controls. There was no significant difference in genotype and allelic frequency at the IL-18 -607C/A polymorphism between patients and control subjects. Conclusion. The results indicate that IL-18 +

105A/C polymorphisms may play a role in the development of urolithiasis.”
“Introduction: A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study buy Dibutyryl-cAMP was

to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Materials and methods: Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7.

Results: The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied.

Conclusions: The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.”

In this work, biomass growth is maintained just above maximum oxi

In this work, biomass growth is maintained just above maximum oxidative growth rate by regulating ethanol concentration in the fermenter. The state feedback linearizing control strategy is developed and applied to the technical scale fed-batch Tipifarnib mouse yeast fermentations. The proposed control algorithm is constructed on the reliable

state estimation algorithm developed previously and the biomass concentrations and ethanol measurements are then used in the control algorithm. The ethanol concentration is successfully controlled at fixed and time varying set values. By this approach the specific growth rate is controlled just over the critical value by regulating minimal ethanol concentration in order to maximize the biomass productivity. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The transport behaviors of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/LaMnO3/SrTiO3:Nb heterojunctions with a LaMnO3 layer thickness of between

0 and 12 nm have been systematically studied. The effect of the magnetic field on the junction without the buffer layer is weak. The influence of the magnetic field on the junction is maximized when the layer thickness is similar to 3 nm, demonstrated by a significant field-induced increase in current when the bias voltage is fixed. The corresponding magnetoresistance of the junction is negative, and its maximal value is similar to-32% for a field change of 5 T at 80 K. Based on a quantitative analysis of the current-voltage characteristics, the interfacial barrier can be derived, and it shows a complex variation with an increase in layer thickness, first decreasing and then increasing. This is GSI-IX the apparent reason for the change in buffer-layer-enhanced negative magnetoresistance of the junctions for different layer thicknesses. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562916]“
“Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori enzymes were concentrated, pooled and assessed for the hydrolysis of steam-pretreated

sugarcane bagasse. The enzyme profile of T. reesei gave (IU/L): 1700 FPA, 20,000 CMCase, 340 beta-glucosidase and 12,600 xylanase. FPA and CMCase activities that were 4-fold higher than those of A. awamori (420 and 4900 IU/L, respectively). However the beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities PP2 cost were 134- and 6-fold lower than those of A. awamori (45,600 and 79,100 IU/L, respectively). Furthermore, A. awamori produced ferulic acid esterase (160 IU/L) which acts synergistically with cellulolytic-xylanolytic enzymes in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. The FPA and CMCase activities in the T. reesei-A. awamori blends were enhanced synergistically by 2-fold. Moreover, the hydrolytic effectiveness of the blends was superior to the use of unblended T. reesei or A. awamori enzymes, under corresponding conditions (10 FPU/g bagasse, 20 g bagasse/L and 50 degrees C). Hydrolysis experiments, presenting either 20 or 200 g/L bagasse, resulted in 3.9 or 40g glucose/L, respectively.

“We develop an analytical

device model for graphen

“We develop an analytical

device model for graphene bilayer field-effect transistors (GBL-FETs) with the back and top gates. The model is based on the Boltzmann equation for the electron transport and the Poisson equation in the weak nonlocality approximation for the potential in the GBL-FET channel. The potential distributions in the GBL-FET channel are found analytically. The source-drain current in GBL-FETs and their transconductance are expressed in terms of the geometrical parameters and applied voltages by analytical formulas in the most important limiting cases. These formulas explicitly account selleck compound for the short-gate effect and the effect of drain-induced barrier lowering. The parameters characterizing the strength of these effects are derived. It is shown that the GBL-FET transconductance

exhibits a pronounced maximum as a function of the top-gate see more voltage swing. The interplay of the short-gate effect and the electron collisions results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the transconductance on the top-gate length. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3560921]“
“Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) comprise a family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that are implicated in plant growth and development. In this study, 69 AGPs are identified from the rice genome, including 13 classical AGPs, 15 arabinogalactan (AG) peptides, three non-classical AGPs, three early nodulin-like AGPs (eNod-like AGPs), eight

non-specific lipid transfer protein-like AGPs (nsLTP-like AGPs), and 27 fasciclin-like AGPs (FLAs). The results from expressed sequence tags, microarrays, and massively parallel signature sequencing tags are used to analyse the expression of AGP-encoding genes, which is confirmed by real-time PCR. The results reveal that several rice AGP-encoding TPX-0005 concentration genes are predominantly expressed in anthers and display differential expression patterns in response to abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, and abiotic stresses. Based on the results obtained from this analysis, an attempt has been made to link the protein structures and expression patterns of rice AGP-encoding genes to their functions. Taken together, the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the rice AGP gene family might facilitate further functional studies of rice AGPs.”
“In children with renal insufficiency and accompanying or underlying liver disease, combined liver and kidney transplantations (CLKT) are indicated. However, because of the rare indications, the number of paediatric CLKT is low. Our aim was to analyse CLKT in children with special regard to surgical aspects and outcome. All paediatric CLKT performed at our institution between 1998 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2009, 15 CLKT were performed in 14 paediatric patients (median age 8 years, range 1-16 years).

Methods: We conducted a 36-question online survey of members of t

Methods: We conducted a 36-question online survey of members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine regarding management of placenta accreta, and tabulated the results. Results: We had 508 respondents. Most respondents have been in practice for >20 years (30%), at a university-affiliated institution (58.1%). In the previous 2 years, 44.6% of respondents operated on 1-3 cases of placenta

accreta, with 3% having operated on greater than PD98059 ic50 10 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as a diagnostic adjunct when the suspicion for accreta is both low (43.1%) and high (68%). In asymptomatic patients with high suspicion for accreta, 15.4% of practitioners hospitalize patients antenatally, 34.5% administer corticosteroids, and 46.8% perform amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity prior to delivery, which they schedule most commonly at 36 weeks (48.4%). Equipment requested prior to delivery includes intravascular balloon catheters (35%) and ureteral stents or catheters R406 order (26.2%). With high suspicion for accreta intraoperatively, the majority proceed with hysterectomy, but 14.9% report conservative

management. Conclusion: Survey respondents employ diverse approaches in the management of patients with placenta accreta. Further study may lead to consensus strategies to improve outcome in this high-risk obstetric condition.”
“Purpose: To develop and validate a simple and selective high performance liquid chromatography photo Fosbretabulin cost diode array mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination and confirmation of seven major active alkaloids (6-Hydroxy-beta-Carboline-1-carboxylic

acid, beta-Carboline-1-carboxylic acid, beta-Carboline-1-propanoic acid, 3-Methylcanthin-5,6-dione, 4-Methoxy-3-methylcanthine-5,6- dione, 5-Hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one, 4,5-Dimethoxycanthin-6-one) in Kumu injections (KMIs)

Methods: For the analysis of the preparation, the optimal chromatographic condition was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C-18 column with gradient elution of 25 mM aqueous ammonium acetate (pH = 4.0 adjusted by glacial acetate acid) and acetonitrile with flow rate at 1.0 mL/min, column temperature at 35 degrees C and detection wavelengths at 245, 260 and 271 nm.

Results: Excellent linear behavior over the investigated concentration ranges was observed with regression coeffcient (R-2) > 0.9997 for all analytes. Intra- and inter-day precisions for all studied constituents ranged from 0.20 to 1.80 %. Recoveries of the assayed constituents were in the range of 98.73 to 100.34 %. The results showed the contents of these seven marker compounds differed significantly among different batches of KMIs both from the same and different manufacturers.

Conclusion: The validated method was reliable, accurate, repeatable and can be applied to routine quality assessment of these active components in KMIs.

Deja vu experiences are also common mental phenomena in nonclinic

Deja vu experiences are also common mental phenomena in nonclinical individuals. The purpose

of this study was to clarify two forms of deja vu experiences in persons with epilepsy. Deja vu experiences of 312 patients with epilepsy and 402 nonclinical individuals were evaluated using the Inventory of Deja vu Experiences Assessment. In the patients with epilepsy, characteristics of deja vu experiences with seizure recognition (SR form) were compared with those experiences with no seizure recognition (NSR form). The incidence (63.1%) of deja vu experiences Selleck GF120918 in patients with epilepsy was significantly lower than that (76.1%) of nonclinical individuals (x(2) = 14.2, P = 0.000). Among the patients with epilepsy, 55.6% had the NSR form and 24.0% had the SR form. Those with the NSR form manifested fewer psychopathological characteristics than did those with the SR form. Patients tended to view the SR form more negatively (i.e., frightened, uncomfortable, or disturbed) than the NSR form. The NSR form was significantly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies, less frequent antiepileptic drug administration, and no mesial temporal sclerosis. Although there was a significant association between the frequency of the SR form and patients’ habitual seizures, the frequency of the NSR form was not

associated with the frequency of the patients’ habitual seizures. Persons with epilepsy experience two forms of deja vu which are differently associated selleck compound with their seizure recognition. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

and aims: Chronic hyperglycaemia aggravates obesity and diabetes mellitus. The use of glucose by body organs click here depends on several factors. We sought to investigate the role of blood flow, intrinsic tissue glucose clearance and blood glucose levels in regulating tissue glucose uptake under fasting conditions (FCs) and in response to acute hyperglycaemia (AH) in obese and type 2 diabetic rats.

Methods and results: Thirty-six Zucker rats were studied by positron emission tomography to quantify perfusion and glucose uptake during FC and after AH in the liver, myocardium, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Progressively higher glucose uptake rates were observed from lean to obese (p < 0.05) and to diabetic rats (p < 0.05) in all tissues during both FC and AH. In FC, they were increased of 7-18 times in obese rats and 11-30 times in diabetic rats versus controls. Tissue glucose uptake was increased by over 10-fold during AH in controls; this response was severely blunted in diseased groups. AH tended to stimulate organ perfusion in control rats. Tissue glucose uptake was a function of intrinsic clearance and glycaemia (mass action) in healthy animals, but the latter component was lost in diseased animals. Differences in perfusion did not account for those in glucose uptake.

1063/1 3544481]”
“Stimulation of insulin-like

“Stimulation of insulin-like AZD2014 concentration growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor by IGF-1 and insulin strongly induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that genetic variations of the IGF-1 receptor may be linked to the diversity of left ventricular (LV) structure in hypertensive patients. Genotypes

in 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IGF-1 receptor gene identified by direct sequencing were determined in 795 Japanese patients with essential hypertension. In echocardiographic examinations, LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were measured. Among 12 SNPs, promoter -328C>T and intron-13 275124A>C polymorphisms were significantly associated with LV hypertrophy (LVM >= 125 g m(-2)) and concentric change (RWT >= 0.44), respectively. In allele frequencies, the C allele of -328C>T was related to LV hypertrophy, and the A allele of 275124A>C was related to LV concentric change. In fact, LVMI and prevalence of LV hypertrophy increased in CC genotype of -328C>T. RWT and prevalence of LV concentric change increased in AA genotype of 275124A>C. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the Omipalisib presence of CC genotype of -328C>T or AA genotype of 275124A>C was an independent determinant for LV hypertrophy or concentric change, respectively. Furthermore,

the combination of CC of -328C>T and AA of 275124A>C genotypes was significantly associated with abnormal LV geometry, especially concentric hypertrophy. Our findings show that

two SNPs of the IGF-1 receptor gene are related to LV hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension, suggesting that the genetic variation of the IGF-1 receptor may be involved in the diversity of LV structure in hypertensives. URMC-099 chemical structure Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 320-326; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.73; published online 17 September 2009″
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with atypical symptoms poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, frequently resulting in delayed diagnosis. The patient reported here presented with unexplained weight loss and was investigated for 8 months, with an extensive work-up, including several imaging studies, especially to rule out neoplastic processes, before a diagnosis of ALS could be made, largely on the basis of upper and lower motor weakness. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:362-364)”
“Studies of oxide interfaces, and how they affect physical properties, have recently gained large attention. For ferroelectric materials, the evolution of the order parameter close to an interface is important to understand regarding the stability of the ferroelectric phase, and how to optimize devices taking advantage of the polarization at the interface.

4% with respect to InP, as well as subsequently grown lattice mat

4% with respect to InP, as well as subsequently grown lattice matched In0.69Ga0.31As overlayers on the metamorphic buffers were explored on both (100) and 2 degrees offcut (100) InP substrates. The metamorphic graded buffers revealed very efficient relaxation coupled with low threading dislocation densities on the order of (1-2)x10(6) cm(-2) for the range of misfit values explored here. A detailed analysis via high resolution

learn more x-ray diffraction revealed that the strain relaxed symmetrically, with equivalent numbers of alpha and beta dislocations, and to greater than 90% for all cases, regardless of substrate offcut. Further analysis showed the relaxation to always be glide limited in these materials when grown on a graded buffer compared to a single step layer. The threading dislocation density was observed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy to be constant for the range of misfit values studied here in the top layer of the graded structures, which is attributed to the very efficient use of residual dislocations and the dominance of dislocation glide over nucleation in these graded anion metamorphic buffers, suggesting great promise for metamorphic

devices with lattice constants greater than that of InP to be enabled by InAsP metamorphic structures on InP.”
“Metabolite fingerprinting of bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) using LC-MS according to the cultivation region and the maturity level was performed. The endogenous metabolites were extracted with 80% cold ethanol and the total content of phenolics and anthocyanins compounds was assessed. Accurate mass fingerprinting with chromatographic separation successfully classified bokbunja based on the metabolite profile. Unsupervised classification method (PCA) and supervised prediction model (OPLSDA) provided good capability in categorizing the samples according to the region and the maturity level. Additional tandem-mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of some anthocyanin derivatives that showed the most dramatic increase during ripening period (e.g., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside).”
“In this study, the antigenotoxic effects of diversin, a prenylated coumarin obtained from Ferula diversivittata roots were evaluated using comet assay. Isolated lymphocytes from healthy volunteers’ blood samples were incubated with diversin (10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mu M) alone, or in the presence of H2O2 (25 mu M). DNA break was measured based on the %tail DNA and compared with different concentrations of curcumin (10, 25 and 50 mu M) as the positive control. It was shown that all concentrations of diversin significantly reduce DNA damage caused by H2O2.”
“Experimental studies about electrical activation and clustering of B implanted in crystalline Ge (c-Ge) are reported. To this aim, we structurally and electrically investigated c-Ge samples implanted at different temperatures with B at 35 keV in the high-concentration dopant regime (0.

Runners with an elevated bone turnover (EBT) (n = 13) had a lower

Runners with an elevated bone turnover (EBT) (n = 13) had a lower body mass, fewer menstrual cycles in the past SHP099 chemical structure year, lower estradiol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, and a higher prevalence of body mass index <10% for age, vitamin D insufficiency, amenorrhea, and low bone mass. Girls with EBT consumed less than the recommended amounts of energy and had a higher prevalence of consuming <1300 mg Ca than did those with normal bone turnover.

Conclusions: Runners with EBT had a profile consistent with energy deficiency. Nutritional support to increase energy, calcium intake, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations may improve bone mineral accrual in young runners with EBT. This trial was

registered Vorinostat mouse at as NCT01059968. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:652-9.”
“Percolation phenomena in bionanocomposites composed of the bioplastic polylactide and surface decorated supramolecular multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated. MWCNTs with three distinct surface chemistries-a native surface, a hydroxyl functionalized surface, and a short hydrocarbon functionalized surface-are prepared and studied. Two experimental methods

are used to determine percolation thresholds; melt rheology provides a measure of the mechanical percolation threshold and electrical impedance spectroscopy provides values of the electrical percolation threshold. The MWCNT-loading level required to obtain mechanical percolation is systematically found to be lower than the loading level needed to achieve electrical percolation. Hydroxylated MWCNTs have the highest percolation thresholds of 1.8 (mechanical) and 6.7 wt % (electrical), which is attributed to aggregation caused by hydrogen bonding. Alkane-grafted MWCNTs have lower percolation thresholds of 0.76 (mechanical) and 2.8 wt % ( electrical). However, untreated MWCNTs have the lowest thresholds of 0.16 (mechanical) and 1.5 wt % (electrical). The reduced percolation threshold observed upon conversion of the hydroxylated

surface to the alkylated surface is attributed to morphological differences-functionalization disrupts hydrogen bonding learn more and leads to better nanotube dispersion. The combination of higher inherent conductivity and more favorable nanotube-polylactide interactions implies that unmodified MWCNTs are preferred to produce electrically conductive bionanocomposites. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2563-2572, 2011″
“We investigate the effect of particle size on reduction temperatures in surfactant capped fine iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in size ranging from 7 to 3 nm using in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). The 7 nm size particles are reduced to metallic alpha-Fe and FeO phase at 400 degrees C and remains stable up to 600 degrees C. On further heating, alpha-Fe phase grows at the expense of FeO and the growth process completes at 800 degrees C.