However, the sexual difference in survivorship

However, the sexual difference in survivorship cannot explain the male-biased SSD in SVL. Our results indicate that performance-related characteristics, such as TL, HW, and LL diverged earlier than SVL. The physiological mechanisms underlying the different growth patterns of males and females may reflect different energy allocations associated with their different reproductive statuses.”
“The present article reports a summary of results relating to 170 on-protocol tests performed on five deuterated palladium bulk cathodes stimulated by dual lasers at 8, 15 and 20 THz over the period March 2007 to May 2008. These frequencies were not measured

but assumed to be effective based on a calculated difference beat frequency. Excess power was observed in 161 tests, giving a success rate of approximately 95%. The cathode fabrication, loading and laser application protocols are discussed.”
“A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region

to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory NVP-BSK805 inhibitor structures, INCB024360 thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata

flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.”
“Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S.

We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the s

We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves

further study. We highlight the importance Nirogacestat in vivo of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background. To establish a new experimental model of human hepatocellular carcinoma by orthotopic implantation of tumoral cells this website with its subsequent removal, to generate and modulate circulating tumoral cells.\n\nMaterials and methods. Three human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, PLC/PRF, and Mahlavu) were orthotopically implanted under the Glisson’s capsule of the left lateral lobe of the liver in a total of 56 non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Tumor removal was performed 30 d after injection, and a laparotomy without tumor removal was done in control mice. Generation of circulating cells was monitored by flow cytometry

using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-HIA antibody.\n\nResults. In 26 mice implanted with Mahlavu cells, 20 developed a unique tumor allowing a resection (77%), which CCI-779 was technically feasible in 80% of cases. The overall perioperative mortality

was 30% (3/10) after resection; no mortality was observed in the control group. The circulating tumoral cells decreased dramatically after resection of the tumor as compared with control mice.\n\nConclusion. This new model is feasible and may be an interesting useful tool to study the hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic process and is consistent with the human clinical practice. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This review attempts to explain how dietary mineral intake may affect the immune system, with particular reference to gastrointestinal nematode infestations of livestock, and considers its significance for other gut infections as well as for other species. Of the 56 minerals found in mammalian tissues, 16 are currently considered to be essential, and a further 13 probably essential, for cell and tissue function. To date, eight of these have been shown to affect the function of the mammalian immune system directly. Nine others have roles in physiological pathways such as neurological or endocrine function, or protein or carbohydrate metabolism, which in turn regulate the immune system. The remainder may in the future be shown to have immunologically specific roles.

8%, 63%)]} was significantly lower than periodontally healthy sam

8%, 63%)]} was significantly lower than periodontally healthy samples 62% [IQR (51.3%, 74%)], p=0.007 and gingivitis biopsies 63% [IQR (55%, 74%)], p=0.02. The transcriptional level of IFNG in periodontitis biopsies was 1.96-fold and significantly higher than tissues with periodontal health (p=0.04). Although the mRNA level from experimental gingivitis samples exhibited an 8.5-fold increase as compared with periodontally healthy samples, no significant methylation difference was observed in experimental gingivitis sample.\n\nConclusions\n\nA hypomethylation profile within IFNG promoter region is related to an increase of IFNG transcription present in the chronic periodontitis

biopsies, while such an increase of IFNG in experimentally induced gingivitis seems independent of promoter methylation alteration.”
“Elective bilateral exposure of iliac arteries during endovascular or laparoscopic CA3 aneurysm repair is commonly performed through two retroperitoneal incisions in the iliac

fossa. Larger incisions are necessary when simultaneous external and common iliac exposures are needed. We describe a new technique using a single incision for bilateral approach of the iliac arteries. Exposure of iliac arteries through this bilateral anterior paramedian retroperitoneal approach allows the introduction of endografts, crossover ilioiliac bypass, implantation of graft limbs for bifurcated bypass grafting, reconstruction of internal iliac arteries, and ligature of iliac arteries. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:203-5.)”
“Everyday we choose PRT062607 solubility dmso between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced

food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled “organic” in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the leading cause of acute severe liver disease in Western countries. Treatment strategies for DILI are still not well defined. Aim: We studied the safety and outcomes of steroid/ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) combination therapy in DILI patients. Patients, Materials and Methods: 15 consecutive patients with severe DILI were analyzed for clinical, biochemical and histological data. Nine patients were treated with a steroid step-down therapy with reduction of the daily dose over several weeks; 6 patients received a steroid pulse therapy for 3 days. UDCA was administered for several weeks in both groups.

Published literature, unpublished data and expert consensus were

Published literature, unpublished data and expert consensus were used to determine key parameters, including prevalence, viremia, genotype and the number Quizartinib price of patients diagnosed and treated. In this study of 15 countries, viremic prevalence ranged from 0.13% in the Netherlands to 2.91% in Russia. The largest viremic populations were in India (8666000 cases) and Russia (4162000 cases). In most countries, males had a higher rate of infections, likely due to higher rates of injection drug use (IDU). Estimates characterizing the infected population are critical to focus screening and treatment efforts as new therapeutic options become available.”
“Acute kidney injury (AKI)

is common following paraquat ingestion. The diagnostic performance of injury biomarkers was investigated in serial blood and urine samples from patients from 5 Sri Lankan hospitals. Functional AKI was diagnosed using serum creatinine (sCr) or serum cystatin C (sCysC). The 95th centile in healthy subjects defined the urinary biomarker cutoffs for diagnosing structural AKI. 50 poisoned patients provided 2 or more specimens, 76% developed functional AKI [AKIN stage 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 7) or 3 (n = 19)]; 19/26 patients with AKIN stage 2/3 also had functional AKI by sCysC criteria ( bigger than = 50% increase). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC), clusterin (uClu)

and NGAL (uNGAL) increased within 24 h of ingestion compared with NoAKI patients and healthy controls. Each biomarker demonstrated moderate diagnostic utility Vorinostat supplier [AUC-ROC: uCysC 0.79, uNGAL 0.79, uClu 0.68] for diagnosis of functional AKI at 16 h. Death occurred only in subjects with functional AKI. Structural biomarker-based definitions detected more AKI than did sCr or sCysC, but did not independently predict death. Renal injury biomarkers did not add clinical value to patients who died rapidly due to multi-organ failure. Use of injury biomarkers within 16-24 h may guide early intervention for reno-protection in

less severe paraquat poisoning. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, we examined the integrity of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles during their PARP inhibitor binding to the surface of BHK-21 cells under physiological condition. For monitoring of the virus integrity we used blocking of the endocytosis with dynasore and cytochalasin D followed by RT-PCR for viral protein VP1 and the resistance of FMDV to the treatment of RNase A. Our results showed that integrin binding to VP1 did not cause a substantial conformational change in the viral capsid. Furthermore, treatment with RNase A showed no effect on the infectivity of intact as well as cell-bound virions. Our findings confirmed that FMDV entered the host cells in the form of intact virions.”
“Cyathocline purpurea has been traditionally used to treat various diseases including cancers for many years. However, these applications of C. purpurea have not been supported by pharmacological investigation.

23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1 10-1 38, for every increase

23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.38, for every increase of 500 cal/day], yet high consumption of olive oil was nevertheless found to reduce the prevalence of high MD (OR = 0.86;95% CI = 0.76-0.96, for every increase of 22 g/day in olive oil consumption); and, while greater intake of whole milk was likewise associated with higher MD (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.00-1.20, for every increase of 200 g/day), higher consumption of protein (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-1.00, for every increase

of 30 g/day) and white meat (p for trend 0.041) was found to be inversely associated with MD. Our study, the largest to date to assess the association between diet and MD, suggests that MD is associated with modifiable dietary factors, such as calorie intake and olive oil consumption. These foods could thus modulate the prevalence of high MD, and important risk marker for breast cancer.”
“We selleck chemical developed a mathematical model to investigate the production and transport of nitric oxide (NO) generated by a monolayer of cultured endothelial cells exposed to flow in a parallel plate flow chamber.

The objectives were to provide a theoretical framework for interpreting experimental observations and to suggest a quantitative relationship LY2603618 solubility dmso between shear stress and NO production rate. NO production was described as a combination of a basal production rate term and a shear-dependent term. Our results show that the shear stress-dependence of the production of NO by the endothelium influences the nature of mass transport within the boundary layer. We found that the steady state NO concentration near the endothelial surface exhibits a biphasic dependence on shear stress, in which

at low flow, NO concentration decreases owing to the enhanced removal by convective H 89 cell line transport while only at higher shear stresses does the increased production cause an increase in NO concentration. The unsteady response to step changes in flow exhibits transient fluctuations in NO that can be explained by time-dependent changes in the diffusive and convective mass transport as the concentration profile evolves. Our results indicate that this model can be used to determine the relationship between shear stress and NO production rate from measurements of NO concentration.”
“An efficient synthesis of siRNAs modified at the backbone with a triazole functionality is reported. Through the use of 4,4′-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) phosphoramidite chemistry, triazole backbone dimers were site-specifically incorporated throughout various siRNAs targeting both firefly luciferase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene transcripts as representatives of an exogenous and endogenous gene, respectively. Following the successful silencing of the firefly luciferase reporter gene, triazole-modified siRNAs were also found to be capable of silencing GAPDH in a dose-dependent manner.

05) decreased aortic SBP (similar to 10 mm Hg), DBP (similar to 5

05) decreased aortic SBP (similar to 10 mm Hg), DBP (similar to 5 mm Hg), PP (similar to 5 mm Hg), AP (similar to 5 mm Hg), Alx (similar to 10%) and TTI (similar to 311 mm Hg s per minute), while increased muscle strength (similar to 9%) compared with no changes after control. Changes in AP and leg muscle strength were correlated (r= -0.58, P=0.02). Our data demonstrated that WBVET reduced pressure wave reflection magnitude

and aortic blood pressure Autophagy inhibitor in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. Our study suggests that WBVET may decrease cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women by improving wave reflection and muscle strength.”
“Silicon particle detectors made on Czochralski and float zone silicon materials were irradiated with 7 and 9 MeV protons at a temperature of 220 K. During the irradiations, the detectors were biased up to their operating voltage. Specific values for the fluence and flux of the irradiation were found to cause a sudden breakdown in the detectors. We studied the limits of the fluence and the flux in the breakdown as well as the behavior of the detector

response function under high flux irradiations. The breakdown was shown to be an edge effect. Additionally, the buildup of an oxide charge is suggested to lead to an increased localized electric field, which in turn triggers a charge carrier multiplication. Furthermore, we studied the influences of the type of silicon material and the configuration of the detector guard rings. (C)

2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3262611]“
“Study objective: Recruitment to clinical trials is a challenging but essential activity in emergency medicine. Conventional fixed-sample trials may continue to recruit patients after efficacy has been demonstrated or when further recruitment is futile. Adaptive trials make use of emerging information to modify aspects of a trial or terminate it prematurely, potentially resulting in savings in terms of sample size, time, and cost. We aim to use sequential testing procedures to reanalyze data from a fixed-sample trial, the Randomised Assessment of Treatment Using Panel Assay of Cardiac Markers (RATPAC) trial, and investigate the potential for adaptive designs to reduce unnecessary recruitment.\n\nMethods: DZNeP cost The trial was reanalyzed with a triangular group sequential design, with interim analyses planned every 3 months. Patients were analyzed in the order in which they entered the original trial.\n\nResults: We found that the RATPAC trial could potentially have stopped 1 year earlier, with 722 patients enrolled compared with 2,243 patients in the original trial, making a potential saving of approximately $390,000. Estimates of effect were similar, and the qualitative conclusions of the original and group sequential RATPAC trials were in agreement.

“Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are caused by congenital de

“Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are caused by congenital deficiency of factor VIII and factor IX, respectively, and may lead to recurrent, spontaneous bleeding into the muscles and joints resulting in disabling arthropathy. Effective management

is available in the form of prophylactic infusions of clotting factor concentrates which have been demonstrated to prevent bleeding BIX 01294 in vivo episodes and greatly improve the quality of life of these patients. Prophylaxis is, however, expensive. Usual dosing regimens rely on weight based calculations but dosing with an understanding of an individual’s pharmacokinetic response has been demonstrated to be more effective in predicting clotting factor levels that protect against bleeding episodes. Standard pharmacokinetic studies require a prohibitive number of time sampling points but recent population or Bayesian pharmacokinetics

can be used to provide an accurate estimation of an individual’s pharmacokinetic response using a limited number of sampling time points. The use of population pharmacokinetics has the potential to greatly selleckchem increase the use of pharmacokinetic dosing regimens and optimize the use of clotting factor concentrates in patients with hemophilia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 60: S27S29. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We pattern submicrometer structures of thin films of permalloy in the form of two crossing ellipses and in the form of one long ellipse crossed by several ellipses where the width of the ellipses varies between 100 and 1000 nm. We find that the crossing area has two stable axes of magnetization, which are perpendicular to each other and which are rotated by 45 degrees relative to the axes of the ellipses. We measure the planar Hall effect (PHE) of 5-Fluoracil research buy the

submicrometer structures and demonstrate sharp switching behavior between the two easy axes of the magnetization. The observed behavior is modeled analytically with bi-axial magnetic anisotropy and compared with numerical simulations. We discuss possible application of such submicrometer structures for PHE-based magnetic memory. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3677885]“
“The prevalence of obesity in patients with haemophilia (PWH) is increasing. We investigated the effect of obesity on bleeding frequency and clotting factor concentrate (CFC) usage in PWH and assessed whether prothrombotic changes observed in obesity differ between controls and PWH. Number of bleeds and CFC usage were compared between obese (N=51) and non-obese (N=46) haemophilia A patients. Markers of haemostasis and fibrinolysis were compared between PWH, and gender-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-haemophilic controls (N=91). Median number of bleeds/patient-month was comparable between obese and non-obese patients with severe haemophilia (P=0.791). Obese patients with severe haemophilia used 1.4 times more CFC/patient-month than non-obese patients (P=0.036). When adjusting for weight this difference disappeared (P=0.451).

“Purpose of reviewThis review describes the most recen

“Purpose of review\n\nThis review describes the most recent advances in epidemiology, classification, genetics, pathology and treatment of essential tremor. In addition, recent advances in more rare forms of tremor are SB203580 chemical structure summarized.\n\nRecent findings\n\nClinical, biochemical, pathological and imaging studies suggest an abnormal functioning of the cerebellum in essential tremor. Minor changes of cognition and personality may be due to secondary effects. Dementia and possible shortened life span

seem to be limited to late-onset essential tremor. Many of these issues are not yet finally settled and need confirmation in further studies. The current essential tremor classification seems not to reflect the variety of phenotypic expressions. Regarding treatment, there is now a level B evidence for topiramate. Levetiracetam may induce a positive response in Holmes tremor, but is ineffective in orthostatic tremor.\n\nSummary\n\nThese findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. FDA approved Drug Library manufacturer Recent treatments have remained unchanged.”
“Intensified chemotherapy is one of the strategies currently used in the treatment of children with metastatic Ewing sarcoma.

However, the increasing dose intensity has not significantly improved the event-free survival. We report a patient who initially presented with localized Ewing sarcoma and later developed

metastatic disease that required dose-intensified chemotherapy. The patient’s Ewing sarcoma remained refractory to treatment despite continuous intensified chemotherapy and was complicated by a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 abnormality. Examination of bone marrow at the last clinical follow up demonstrated both acute myeloid leukemia and residual metastatic Ewing sarcoma.”
“Objectives To create user-friendly search filters with high sensitivity, specificity, and precision to identify articles on geriatric medicine in Medline.\n\nDesign A diagnostic test assessment framework was used. A reference set of AZD8931 datasheet 2255 articles was created by hand-searching 22 biomedical journals in Medline, and each article was labeled as ‘relevant’, ‘not relevant’, or ‘possibly relevant’ for geriatric medicine. From the relevant articles, search terms were identified to compile different search strategies. The articles retrieved by the various search strategies were compared with articles from the reference set as the index test to create the search filters.\n\nMeasures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated by comparing the results retrieved by the different search strategies with the reference set.\n\nResults The most sensitive search filter had a sensitivity of 94.8%, a specificity of 88.7%, a precision of 73.0%, and an accuracy of 90.2%.

Conclusions FZD6 belongs to a family of proteins that serve a

\n\nConclusions FZD6 belongs to a family of proteins that serve as receptors in Wnt signalling pathways, and has been shown to act as a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling cascade and a positive regulator of the noncanonical Wnt or planar cell polarity pathway. The present results therefore suggest that FZD6 plays a pivotal role in the growth and guidance of the nail plate in humans by acting as a molecular switch between different Wnt pathways. Previous studies have identified mutations in the RSPO4 and LMX1B components of the Wnt pathway GSI-IX ic50 in patients with the hypoplastic nail disorders anonychia and nail-patella syndrome, respectively. Only recently, FZD6

mutations were identified in isolated nail dysplasia. The present results emphasize the important role of the Wnt pathways in nail development buy LY3039478 and increase understanding of Wnt-mediated developmental events in general.”

facilitate routine laboratories in the effective diagnosis of brucellosis, we report a robust and rapid multiplex PCR assay, which allows for the differentiation of all nine currently recognised Brucella species. This includes the recently described species B. microti, B. inopinata, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents a heterogeneous disease with a very variable outcome. The reliable prognosis of this disease at the time of initial diagnosis is difficult to predict. The purpose of this preliminary study was to utilize the nucleolar morphology and to investigate the incidence of main nucleolar types in leukemic lymphocytes in B-CLL patients to assess their possible predictive value for the disease outcome, in correlation this website with immunophenotype parameters.

The evaluation of nucleolar morphology of pathologic lymphocytes was performed at diagnosis and during the course of disease. Median follow up period of patients was 16.4 months (range from 2 to 32 months) from diagnosis. The nucleoli were visualized by a simple cytochemical demonstration of RNA and the proportion of main nucleolar types in pathologic lymphocyte population infiltrating bone marrow of 84 patients suffering from B-CLL was analyzed. The presence of ring shaped and compact nucleoli in leukemic lymphocytes divided patients into two subgroups with different outcome of the disease. Malignant lymphocytes of the majority of patients (Group 1,71 patients, 84.5%) mostly contained ring shaped nucleoli. These patients were in stable phase and did not require any treatment during the follow up. The population of leukemic cells of a small group of B-CLL patients (Group 2, 13 patients, 15.4%) was characterized by the presence of various proportions of pathologic lymphocytes with one large compact nucleolus.

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success.”
“Objective: To compare the long-term outcomes of surgical resection

and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).\n\nSummary Background Data: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising, emerging therapy for small HCC. Whether it is as effective as surgical resection (RES) for long-term outcomes is still indefinite.\n\nMethods: Two hundred thirty HCC patients who met the Milan criteria and were suitable to be treated by either RES or RFA entered into a randomized controlled trial. The patients were regularly followed up after treatment for 5 years (except for those who died). The primary end point was overall survival; the secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, overall recurrence, and early-stage recurrence.\n\nResults: selleck chemicals llc The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year overall survival rates for the RFA group and the RES group were 86.96%, 76.52%, 69.57%,

66.09%, 54.78% and 98.26%, 96.52%, 92.17%, 82.60%, 75.65%, respectively. The corresponding recurrence-free survival click here rates for the 2 groups were 81.74%, 59.13%, 46.08%, 33.91%, 28.69% and 85.22%, 73.92%, 60.87%, 54.78%, 51.30%, respectively. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were significantly lower in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.017). The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall recurrence rates were 16.52%, 38.26%, 49.57%, 59.13%, and 63.48% for the RFA group and 12.17%, 22.60%, 33.91%, 39.13%, and 41.74% for the RES group. The overall recurrence was higher in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.024).\n\nConclusions: Surgical Dorsomorphin resection may

provide better survival and lower recurrence rates than RFA for patients with HCC to the Milan criteria.”
“Background In the past three decades, the role of pharmacists has evolved toward working with other health professionals and the public in a patient-centered model of practice, which is called pharmaceutical care. This model has been implemented for most physical illnesses but in relation to mental health, pharmacists’ role is still evolving. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes, current practice, perceived barriers and training needs concerning pharmaceutical care for people with depression. Setting All pharmacists attending obligatory regional meetings of the Surplus Network (a Flemish community pharmacy chain) during April and May 2009. Method Written survey consisting of questions on (1) pharmacists’ attitude and current practice in depression care and pharmaceutical care for people with other illnesses; (2) potential barriers in providing pharmaceutical care for people with depression; and (3) training needs. Paired samples T tests and Wilcoxon-tests were used to analyze the data.