Finally, the actin-bundling protein LPL induces

the requi

Finally, the actin-bundling protein LPL induces

the required F-actin rigidity for receptor stabilization. Thus, recruitment of LPL to the IS is crucial for sustained LFA-1 cluster formation within the IS. LPL associates with LFA-1 in unstimulated and stimulated T cells. Therefore, LPL may stabilize LFA-1 in its localization in both situations. A similar mechanism was suggested for avidity regulation by F-actin 32. Whether LPL is also Selleck BIBW2992 involved in the active transport of LFA-1 or whether LFA-1 moves through diffusion to the contact zone is currently unknown. In addition to LPL, Talin is one candidate that associates with LFA-1 1, 33. Whether LPL acts in concert with Talin is not known at present. However, in LPL knock-down T cells the relocalization of Talin in the contact zone was severely disturbed, indicating that Talin acts downstream of LPL. It is tempting to speculate that calmodulin regulates LFA-1 localization in the IS by stabilizing LPL. Interestingly, LPL binds to calmodulin only in the presence of EGTA, whereas calcium

even inhibits this interaction. These results suggested a binding to calcium-free calmodulin (ApoCalmodulin) 27. However, the exact mechanisms of LPL/calmodulin interaction in vivo remains to be determined. Nevertheless, up to now, only very little was known about the GS-1101 chemical structure function of calmodulin for T-cell polarization. It was demonstrated that calmodulin regulates the myosin light chain kinase 34, 35. Antagonizing calmodulin led to a reduction in cell spreading and migration on surface coated ICAM-1 34. This finding supports our results demonstrating that calmodulin antagonists reduce the T-cell/APC interface. In addition, our data provide evidence for an unusual function of calmodulin by introducing a direct connection of calmodulin with LFA-1 cluster stabilization during T-cell activation. The TCR/CD3 complex migrated to the IS independent of LPL expression. This Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase difference is likely caused by the fact that CD3 does not bind to LPL and uses distinct linkers to the actin cytoskeleton. Note that the superantigens used to

stimulate PBT represent rather strong stimuli and bind outside the peptide-binding groove. So far, we cannot judge whether TCR/CD3 recruitment to the IS through (weak) agonistic peptide-antigens would be influenced in a different way. Taken together, we introduced new proteins that are important for the sustained – but not initial – accumulation of LFA-1 in the mature IS, i.e. LPL and calmodulin. The combined functions of these two proteins control the size, molecular composition and duration of the T-cell/APC interface, which is fundamental for the activation of T cells. These findings might also be relevant for other actin-dependent functions that require receptor polarization, e.g. cell migration and/or extravasation.

Only select initial trials used DC derived from CD34+ cells, perh

Only select initial trials used DC derived from CD34+ cells, perhaps a result of a more difficult production process 36. All the various trials are difficult to compare due to a range of differences, but the immunogenicity of mature DC was obvious, and hints for clinical efficacy have been observed. The first vaccine with proven clinical benefit (Dendreon’s Sipuleucel-T, Provenge™) is, however, not based on highly enriched ex vivo isolated or in vitro generated DC, but is a cellular

vaccine prepared by isolating via gradient centrifugation a DC-precursor-enriched fraction from apheresis products, which is exposed for 2 days to a fusion protein consisting of GM-CSF and prostatic acid phosphatase antigen. This results in targeting to the GM-CSF receptor-expressing cells, including DC precursors, which then undergo Tanespimycin in vitro activation/maturation in vitro (leading to CD54 upregulation which serves as a potency marker 37). Dendreon has

recently confirmed in its pivotal phase III study (IMPACT trial, n=512) that its first-generation cellular vaccine product Sipuleucel-T (Provenge™) significantly improved overall survival (by a median of 4.1 months, reducing the risk of death by 22.5% compared to the control group) in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer even though classical regressions did not occur and time to progression was not prolonged 38. The result of the IMPACT Dabrafenib price trial led to the approval by the FDA of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine ever on April 29th, 2010. The positive outcome has already fostered interest in the development of cancer vaccines in general and DC in particular. The Dendreon story is interesting in several aspects. It reflects,

for example, that in the cancer research community until recently the classical acute response criteria developed for chemotherapy were considered indispensable in judging vaccine effectiveness, even though it ADAM7 had been pointed out early in the 1990s that vaccines require time but not necessarily classical regressions to produce clinical benefit 39. In 2007, the Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group came up with an important position paper proposing a new clinical development paradigm for cancer vaccines 40, and phase II trials employing anti-CTLA-4 antibodies also unraveled distinct response patterns associated with favorable survival 41. The Sipuleucel-T product development – a nerve-wracking roller coaster – also shows that one may succeed with a product that for practical reasons has not been extensively optimized (e.g. to better enrich DC) as long as it can be reproducibly manufactured, a potency marker is available, and one has chosen a tumor amenable to the cancer vaccine.

Although the effects of estrogen are presumed to be mediated by t

Although the effects of estrogen are presumed to be mediated by the classical estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, recent studies have pointed to the newly described G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER as contributing to many of these responses. We and others have recently shown

that, JNK inhibitor screening library like estradiol (E2), the GPER-selective agonist G-1 can attenuate EAE.38,39 In the current work we show that G-1 can evoke IL-10 expression and secretion from CD4+ T cells differentiated under Th17-polarizing conditions. G-1-mediated IL-10 expression was blocked by the GPER-directed antagonist G15,40 and was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling,

consistent with known mechanisms of IL-10 production within effector T-cell populations.12 Analysis of IL-17A, Foxp3 and RORγt expression demonstrated that these responses occurred in cells expressing both IL-17A Ibrutinib datasheet and RORγt, as well as in a population of Foxp3+ RORγt+ hybrid T cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory property for G-1. In addition, these data suggest that the family of GPER-directed small molecules may serve as model compounds for a new class of T-cell-targeted pharmaceuticals in the treatment of autoimmune disease and cancer. Male (7–11 weeks old) C57BL/6 and Foxp3egfp mice were used for this study. Mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME), and subsequently housed, bred and cared for according to the institutional guidelines in the Animal Resource Facility

at the University Idelalisib molecular weight of New Mexico. Foxp3-IRES-GFP (Foxp3egfp) transgenic mice, which contain egfp under the control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) inserted downstream of the foxp3 coding region, have been previously described.41 T cells were obtained from single cell suspensions following homogenization of spleens and lymph nodes by mechanical disruption and passage through a 70-μm nylon filter. Suspensions were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD62 ligand (CD62L) and anti-CD44 antibodies (Biolegend, San Diego, CA). Enriched populations of CD4+ CD62Lhi and CD4+ CD44lo CD62Lhi naive T cells were collected by flow cytometric cell sorting on a MoFlo cell sorter (Cytomation, Carpinteria, CA). Purity was regularly > 96%. In most cases, experiments were repeated with both types of sorted naive T cells, and no differences were noted. Alternatively, CD4+ cells were collected from the single cell suspensions by magnetic bead sorting, using CD4 microbeads (Miltenyi, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) and positive selection on an AutoMACS (Miltenyi). This yielded populations with a purity > 90%.

Explanations for the failure to learn phonologically similar word

Explanations for the failure to learn phonologically similar words typically focus on top-down mechanisms, such as task demands

(Werker et al., 1998; Yoshida, Fennell, Swingley, & Werker, 2009) or lexical access (Swingley & Aslin, 2007). Proponents of the former argue that the demands of laboratory word learning tasks are heavy because the children are required to encode both visual and auditory forms in a short time period and then to connect them to one another. This requires children to allocate their limited resources to specific elements Selleckchem Barasertib of the task (for a review, see Werker & Fennell, 2006). PRIMIR (Werker & Curtin, 2005) describes this as a case where general perceptual processes overwhelm the child’s system, leaving little room for phonetic ones. Additionally, the switch task typically used in these experiments (see Werker et al., 1998) requires that information be represented and organized robustly, as success requires the infant to determine that something is not part of a category. Children this age succeed more easily at positive identification tasks SAHA HDAC in vivo in which they must map an auditory word form to an object (Ballem & Plunkett, 2005). Even infants trained

in the style of Stager and Werker (1997) correctly identify word–object pairings when the test is presented using a two-alternative looking paradigm (Yoshida et al., 2009). Lack of capacity coupled to the difficulty of the switch task might negatively affect 14-month-olds’ use of their discrimination skills in this task. However, as children get older, they become more adept, and by 20 months, they learn phonologically similar words in the switch task (Werker, Fennell, Corcoran, & Stager, 2002). Alternatively, it has been suggested that Carbachol processes involved in lexical access, particularly competition (e.g., Dahan, Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Hogan, 2001; Luce & Pisoni, 1998), interfere with learning (Swingley & Aslin, 2007). In the small lexicon

of 14-month-olds, known words are accessed somewhat easily from phonetic input and compete with novel or newly learned words. New words that sound similar to existing words will activate both a novel representation and these existing known words, and do not fare well in the resulting competition. Thus, 14-month-olds learning words like “tog” will have difficulty because they retrieve “dog” instead (Swingley & Aslin, 2007). Similarly, when infants learn two similar words at once, the word forms compete with one another for representation. As a result, each inhibits the other and learning fails, or alternatively, both representations get linked to the referent (as they are both momentarily active in parallel).

42 In this review, three studies examined the use of metformin in

42 In this review, three studies examined the use of metformin in 3327 patients and while none of these studies were randomized controlled trials, metformin was associated with a 14% reduction in mortality compared with other anti-diabetic drugs and

insulin. In addition, there was no increase in hospital admissions for any cause in patients treated with metformin suggesting that this agent appears safe in patients with heart failure. The Diabetes Prevention Program43 is the largest randomized controlled trial aiming to prevent the development of diabetes in high-risk patients. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to placebo, metformin or a lifestyle modification programme and followed for a mean of 2.8 years. Lifestyle modification resulted in a 58% reduction in the development of diabetes and was significantly superior to both metformin and

placebo. The use of metformin, however, did result in a significant reduction in diabetes Selleck BMS-354825 compared with placebo (31%) with a number needed to treat with metformin of 13.9 to prevent one case of diabetes in this high-risk group. In a recent comparison of women in this study who had a history of gestational diabetes, the effects of metformin were the same as lifestyle modification,44 suggesting that some groups may benefit more from the use of metformin than others. There have been no randomized controlled trials examining selleck screening library hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), which has developed guidelines for the management of hyperglycaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease,45 is explicit in stating that the guidelines are extrapolated from trials of patients with normal renal function or Chronic Kidney

Disease (CKD) 1 and 2 because of the paucity of trials in Dapagliflozin patients with advanced CKD. Treatment options often need to be altered in patients with worsening kidney disease for a number of reasons. Patients with renal impairment have an increased risk of hypoglycaemia as a result of reduced renal clearance of insulin and impaired gluconeogenesis in the kidney. Additionally, a number of agents are not recommended or are contraindicated in renal impairment. Metformin has been included in this group because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis although hypoglycaemia is not a significant issue with this drug. In dialysis patients, K/DOQI recommends that patients follow the ADA guidelines, however, make the caveat that dialysis patients are not targeted in the trials and further research is required in this group. Development of new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is common in patients after renal transplantation. Early studies had varying definitions of diabetes and many reported the development of diabetes only when the use of insulin was required with a recent systematic review reporting an incidence from 2% to 50%.

The latter event facilitated the dissociation of Bim from Bcl-2 w

The latter event facilitated the dissociation of Bim from Bcl-2 without affecting Bim abundance in IL-15-treated CD8αα+ iIELs. Using an adoptive cell transfer approach, we found that either overexpression of Bcl-2 or removal

of Bim from CD8αα+ iIELs promoted their survival in Il15ra−/− mice. Taken together, IL-15 promotes CD8αα+ iIEL survival by both increasing Bcl-2 levels and dissociating Bim from Lapatinib Bcl-2 through activation of a Jak3-Jak1-PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2 pathway, which differs from a previously reported IL-15-induced survival signal. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) are T cells located between the epithelial cells lining the intestinal lumen. In the small intestine of C57BL/6J (B6J) mice, approximately half the iIELs are conventional T cells, while the other half are CD4−CD8β−CD8α+ (CD8αα+) cells that consist of 30% TCRαβ+ (αβ) cells and 70% TCRγδ+ NSC 683864 clinical trial (γδ) cells. CD8αα+ iIELs are developmentally and functionally distinct from conventional T cells. Most CD8αα+ iIEL precursors go through a thymic stage of development, and complete maturation in the intestine [1-4]. Functionally, CD8αα+ iIELs

appear to assume an immune regulatory role in the gut mucosa, as implied by their production of immune suppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10, and by their ability to inhibit colitis [5, 6]. IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine widely expressed with its exclusive high affinity receptor IL-15Rα, while IL-15Rβγ chains are the intermediate affinity receptors for both IL-15 and IL-2 and expressed mainly by hematopoietic cells [7-9]. IL-15 and IL-15Rα form a complex during synthesis

in the ER and exist as transmembrane and soluble forms [10]. Afatinib in vivo The transmembrane IL-15–IL-15Rα complex is “in trans presented” to the IL-15Rβγ on neighboring cells for usage [11]. This mode of IL-15 usage has been implied to control the homeostasis of several lymphoid lineages, including CD8αα+ iIELs [1, 12-14]. More than 90% of CD8αα+ iIELs are missing in Il15−/− [15], Il15ra−/− [16], and Il15rb−/− [17] mice. Bone marrow chimera studies indicate that parenchymal IL-15Rα is essential for the development and maintenance of CD8αα+ αβ and γδ iIELs in the intestine [2, 14]. IL-15 also sustains the survival of primary CD8αα+ αβ and γδ iIELs in vitro [2, 18, 19]. As specific expression of IL-15Rα in the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) of Il15ra−/− mice restores CD8αα+ iIELs and their Bcl-2 level [1], Bcl-2 has been implicated in the prosurvival effect of the IL-15 system. However, overexpression of Bcl-2 only moderately restored CD8αα+ γδ iIELs in Il15−/− mice [20], suggesting that the increase in the level of Bcl-2 alone is not sufficient to account for the prosurvival effect of IL-15.

Median age of patients was

34 years (range 1–73) and 37%

Median age of patients was

34 years (range 1–73) and 37% had less than 18 years. Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying haematological disease (68/84; 81%). The phase of treatment was as follows: first induction Pexidartinib cost in 21/84 (25%), consolidation phase in 18/84 (21%) and reinduction/salvage in 45/84 (54%). The main site of infection was lung with or without other sites. The principal fungal pathogens were as follows: Aspergillus sp. 68 cases (81%), Candida sp. six cases (8%), Zygomycetes four cases (5%) and Fusarium sp. four cases (5%). The most used combo was caspofungin+voriconazole 35/84 (42%), caspofungin + liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 20/84 (24%) and L-AmB+voriconazole 15/84 (18%). The median duration of combo was 19 days (range 3–180). The overall response rate (ORR) was 73% (61/84 responders) without significant differences between the combo regimens. The most important factor that significantly influenced the response was granulocyte (PMN) recovery (P 0.009). Only one patient discontinued therapy (voriconazole-related neurotoxicity) and 22% experienced mild and reversible adverse

events (hypokalaemia, ALT/AST increase and creatinine increase). The IFDs-attributable mortality was 17%. This study indicates that combo was both well tolerated and effective in haematological patients. The most used combo regimens were caspofungin + voriconazole (ORR find more 80%) and caspofungin + L-AmB (ORR 70%). The ORR was 73% and the mortality IFD related was 17%. PMN recovery during combo predicts a favourable outcome. Clinical Trials Registration: CYTH4 NCT00906633. “
“Hepatic fungal infection is a frequent complication in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. Hepatic lesions may be detected

using computerised tomographic (CT) scans, but there is no standardised CT protocol for the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic fungal infection. We therefore retrospectively analysed the number and the volume of hepatic fungal lesions in 24 CT of 20 consecutive patients treated for acute leukaemia during late-arterial and porto-venous phase. The mean number of lesions per patient was 31 (range: 3–105) in the late-arterial and 26 (3–81) in the porto-venous CT (P = 0.026). The mean total volume of all lesions was 6.45 ml in the late-arterial and 4.07 ml in the porto-venous CT representing a 1.6fold difference between the two CT scans (P = 0.008). The total volume of the lesions negatively correlated to the absolute contrast difference between liver parenchyma and liver vein (Pearson correlation, r = −0.62; P = 0.002).

Protective immunity against L monocytogenes infection requires t

Protective immunity against L. monocytogenes infection requires the coordinated action

of a diverse group of immune cells and cytokines (26, 27). Listeria monocytogenes infection led to increased relative spleen weights in the PC and LGG-fed groups, they did not increase in the JWS 833-fed group. Previous studies have reported that decreases in the relative weight of organs such as the spleen are indicative of increased host resistance. Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum reduced the spleen weight in L. monocytogenes-infected mice (29, 31). Meanwhile, the JWS 833-fed group had relatively heavier livers than the PC and LGG-fed groups. An earlier study by Tsai et al. showed a similar result in terms of increased liver weight (32). Rats Selleck Fulvestrant were fed with E. faecium TM39 for 4 weeks at a dose of 1 × 1012 cfu/kg. They found that E. faecium had no adverse effects in terms of changes in the relative weights of the heart, kidney and spleen weight in male or female Wistar rats; however, relative liver weights were higher in the female rats. Moreover, administration of Lactobacillus ingluviei in female BALB/c mice increased body and liver weights;

metabolic changes and amount of mRNA TNF-α was also significantly Selleck DMXAA increased (33). Puertollano et al. injected L. monocytegenes after oral administration of L. plantarum (29). According to them, liver weights were greater in the probiotic-fed than control group, although the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. In our study, JWS 833-fed mice showed reduced spleen weights, suggesting protection from L. monocytogenes. JWS 833 induced higher serum concentrations

of NO and inflammatory cytokines after L. monocytogenes infection than did LGG. This immunomodulatory effect in JWS 833-fed mice correlated with increased survival rates and mean survival times after L. monocytogenes infection. The number of viable L. monocytogenes in the JWS 833-fed mouse livers was significantly lower than Resminostat in those of the control group. In our study we injected, the mice intravenously with L. monocytogenes. Most recent studies have also used i.v. injections to examine immune responses against L. monocytogenes infection in mice. L. monocytogenes is highly virulent in mice; however, JWS 833-fed mice infected with this bacterium i.v. were partially protected from this lethal infection. Since our goal was to determine whether JWS 833 protects mice from lethal infection with L. monocytogenes, we determined a lethal dose of L. monocytogenes based on published reports and our pilot experiments. Irons et al. (31) and Puertollano et al. (29) injected mice with a lethal dose of 106 cfu of L. monocytogenes; the infected mice died within 48–120 hrs. We carried out pilot experiments to determine the lethal dose of L. monocytogenes in BALB/c mice. We found that mice survived for 120 hr after an i.v. injection of 1.2 × 105 cfu/mouse.

Lymphocyte gates were set manually according to forward-scatter (

Lymphocyte gates were set manually according to forward-scatter (FSC) and side-scatter (SSC), and subpopulations were subsequently determined. T cells within the lymphocyte gate were identified selleck screening library as either CD4+CD8- events (T helper cells) or CD4-CD8+ events (T cytotoxic cells). Natural killer (NK)

cells and B cells were approximated within the lymphocyte gate as CD56+ and CD19+ events, respectively. To determine the percentage of total monocytes/macrophages, the total live events were first gated and CD14+ events were then plotted versus SSC. Activated monocytes/macrophages were subsequently determined as CD16+ events within the CD14+ population. Therefore the results, reported as BEZ235 cost CD14+CD16+, represent the percentage of CD14+ cells expressing CD16, not double-positive events within the total live population. Plasma levels of the following interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using the Milliplex™ MAP high sensitivity human cytokine kit with sensitivities of (0·06, 0·10, 0·11, 0·15 and 0·05 pg/ml), respectively (Millipore Corp. Billerica, MA, USA). The plates were read on a Luminex-200 fluorescent analytical test instrument (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX, USA). All assays were performed in duplicate according to the manufacturers’ instructions. For parametric variables, statistical significance between groups

was determined by t-test or analysis of variance (anova) using the Tukey–Kramer post-hoc multiple comparison test. The Kruskall–Wallis test was used to compare gender differences between groups. Correlations between parameters were determined using Pearson’s correlation. For non-parametric variables, correlations were determined by Spearman’s rho. The data was considered significantly different if P < 0·05. Calculations were accomplished with the aid of statistical data analysis software (spss version 17; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 46 subjects (25 CRPS, 21 controls) were recruited for this study. The number of subjects in each group, their age, gender, body mass index (BMI), as

well as the duration of disease and NRS pain score for the CRPS group are tabulated in Table 1. There Anidulafungin (LY303366) were no significant differences in age, gender or BMI (P > 0·05) between the CRPS and control groups. For the CRPS subjects, the location of the initial injury, most prominent signs and symptoms, their overall pain score, the medications they were taking at the time the blood was sampled and other conditions with which the subjects were afflicted are listed in Appendix I. Eighteen of the 25 CRPS subjects had quantitative thermal tests performed as part of their clinical evaluation. None of the subjects demonstrated low thresholds (hypersensitivity) to cold or warm stimuli. The majority (10 of 18) had cold and heat thresholds within the normal range.

However, comparing the two patient groups regarding alloimmune an

However, comparing the two patient groups regarding alloimmune and infectious history, we found no difference (data not shown). Remarkably,

we did not find a correlation between either severity of time to rejection and donor-specific CD8 precursor frequency, implying that other factors predominate in this respect. This could be due to differences in drug metabolism, concomitant with viral infections after transplantation that went unnoticed or the presence of Tregs that somehow delays the alloimmune response. Several groups have shown the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay to be a sensitive assay in predicting cellular alloreactivity pre- and post-transplantation. We Atezolizumab therefore compared the results of this Maraviroc order assay with the results of the MLC–CFSE assay [4,26]. Indeed, the number of IFN-γ-producing cells as detected by ELISPOT was increased significantly in rejectors compared to non-rejectors. In addition, we found a correlation between the number of IFN-γ-producing cells detected by ELISPOT and the dsp CD8 pf. This indicates that the CD8+ allospecific T cells are the most important IFN-γ-producing cells in the ELISPOT assay. However, in

the relatively small populations studied, there was a great overlap between rejectors and non-rejectors both in the ELISPOT assay and the MLC–CFSE assay. Because the difference in precursor frequency between rejectors and non-rejectors could not be explained by a difference in number of HLA-mismatches only, we measured the strength of alloreactive T cell activation by examining the difference in common-γ chain receptor expression after allostimulation. Importantly, we observed a significantly lower frequency of IL-7Rα expressing alloreactive

CD8+ T cells after both donor-specific and third-party see more stimulation in rejectors compared to non-rejectors. A higher pretransplant number of alloreactive IL-7Ra- CD8+ cells could cause this increase in pf. Indeed, we found a fair correlation between dsp CD8pf and the percentage of alloreactive IL-7Rα- CD8+ T cells. An explanation for the difference in percentage of IL-7Rα+ CD8+ T cells between the two patient groups may be a genetic polymorphism that influences the down modulation of IL-7Rα surface expression induced after T cell receptor (TCR) signalling or IL-7 binding [26,30,31]. In line with this, there are known polymorphisms associated with rejection after bone marrow transplantation as well as polymorphisms associated with increased immune activation playing a role in multiple sclerosis [32–34]. The finding of a low proliferative recall response to alloantigens of sorted IL-7Rα- CD8+ T cells is consistent with data from murine and human anti-viral responses [31,35]. These cells resemble the chronic antigen-addicted memory cells as described by Wherry et al. [36].