(Curr Ther Res Clin Exp, 2009;70:421-438) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medic

(Curr Ther Res Clin Exp, 2009;70:421-438) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc.”
“Background: Ischaemic stroke is a common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Cardiology societies

recommend assessing the risk of ischaemic stroke and using adequate prevention in patients with AF. Currently, oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are the most commonly used methods of stroke prevention. Left atrial appendage (LAA) is thought to be the main source of thrombi in patients with AF. LAA closure procedures that have been recently introduced into the clinical practice are an alternative method of stroke prevention in patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulants or with a high risk of bleeding. Two systems of percutaneous LAA closure are currently available, the Watchman plug and the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug, but CUDC-907 purchase experience with these procedures is still very limited.\n\nAim: To provide early results regarding safety and feasibility of percutaneous LAA closure with the

Amplatzer Cardiac Plug in patients with AF and multiple comorbidities resulting in a high risk of stroke and bleeding complications.\n\nMethods: Twenty one patients with AF, at least 2 points in the CHADS2/CHA2DS2VASc score and a high risk of bleeding as assessed by the HAS-BLED score (at least 3 points) underwent percutaneous Amplatzer Savolitinib clinical trial Cardiac Plug Rapamycin mouse implantation. Patients with less than 3 points in the HAS-BLED score were also included in the study if they had contraindications

to oral anticoagulants (e.g. previous haemorrhage, recurrent bleeding, epidermolysis) or suffered from recurrent ischaemic stroke despite anticoagulant treatment. The Amplatzer Cardiac Plug was implanted using the standard technique under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance.\n\nResults: Percutaneous LAA closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug was performed in a group of patients with many comorbidities who had a high risk of ischaemic stroke (CHA2DS2VASc score 4.43 +/- 1.4 points) as well as a high risk of bleeding (HAS-BLED score 3.0 +/- 0.7 points). LAA occlusion was successfully performed in 20 (95.2%) patients. A serious periprocedural complication (cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis) occurred in 1 (4.76%) patient.\n\nConclusions: Successful LAA occlusion is feasible in a vast majority of patients undergoing this procedure. The rate of serious periprocedural complications is relatively low. LAA occlusion is justified in a group of patients with a high risk of ischaemic stroke and a high risk of bleeding or contraindications to oral anticoagulants.”
“At present, the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish is most commonly estimated by means of a short-term test on juvenile or adult animals (OECD TG 203).

Our results showed that, compared to conventional vegetable culti

Our results showed that, compared to conventional vegetable cultivation, plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation has higher fresh vegetable production, greater CO(2) fixation (3.61 t CO(2) ha(-1) yr(-1)), better soil retention (23.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)), and requires less irrigation (2132 m(3) water ha(-1) yr(-1)), maintains similar soil fertility, but also has higher NO(3)(-) accumulation and N(2)O

emissions. In 2004. plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation in China provided an overall net economic benefit of 67,956 yuan yr(-1) (8.28 yuan = 1 USD in 2004), where 68,240 yuan ha(-1) yr(-1) represented ecosystem services and 284 yuan ha(-1) yr(-1) for dis-services. The transition from conventional vegetable cultivation ML323 concentration to plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation resulted in a net economic benefit of 24,248 yuan ha(-1) yr(-1). A cost-benefit analysis suggests that plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation in China has the potential to optimize social benefits in addition to increasing annual economic income to farmers directly. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The (La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3)(1-x)(Sb2O3/CuO)(x) (x=0.00, 0.03, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.18) composites were prepared by the solid-state reaction technique. (La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3)(1-x)(Sb2O3/CuO)(x)

are identified by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis as a two phases consisting of ferromagnetic manganite phase and Sb2O3/CuO phase. Magnetic measurement reveals that the Curie temperature as well as the saturation value of magnetization is gradually weakened by Sb2O3/CuO addition. The temperature selleck chemicals INCB28060 supplier dependence of resistivity shows that the

transport behavior of the composites is governed by the grain boundaries. It is suggested that the Sb2O3 addition, acts as a separation layer between grains. Whereas, the introduction of CuO into the grain boundaries forms artificial conducting network and improves the carrier to transport. The maximum magnetoresistance was observed to be approximate to 60% at 10 K for x=0.03 which is larger than the largest MR value of pure La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3 (40% at 10 K) in a 2 T magnetic field. Enhanced MR effect at a wide temperature range is consistent with the disorder-driven amplification of spin-dependent transport. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: Adequate dietary iodine intake is necessary for normal thyroid gland function at all times, and most particularly during pregnancy. Increased iodine loss is cited, among other factors, as responsible for the increased iodine demand in this period. Our aim was to compare renal iodine excretion between women during all three pregnancy trimesters with that of their spouses and thereby to estimate the iodine intake in an a large sample of pregnant women in urban areas in Greece.

Interestingly, many patients who were followed up for more than a

Interestingly, many patients who were followed up for more than a decade eventually lost Nepicastat research buy their hearing, regardless of whether the tumor displayed any documented interval growth.\n\nConclusion. The authors confirmed the findings of their systematic review of the literature using a prospectively followed group of patients with untreated VS. Collectively,

these data suggest that the expectation for more rapid hearing loss should be communicated to patients, and the decision for surgical or other intervention should be made in the context of the known risk of continued observation of fast growing tumors. (DOI: 10.3171/2010.4.JNS091962)”
“Plasmid DNA vaccines serve in a wide array of applications ranging from prophylactic vaccines to potential therapeutic tools against infectious diseases and cancer. In this study,

we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and their potential role in adaptive immunity during DNA-based immunization against hepatitis B virus surface antigen in mice. We observed that the mature Mac-1(+) CD27(-) NK cell subset increased in the liver of mice early after DNA injection, whereas the number of the less mature Mac-1(+) CD27(+) NK cells in the liver and spleen was significantly reduced. This effect was attributed GDC-0068 molecular weight to bacterial sequences present in the plasmid backbone rather than to the encoded antigen and was not observed in immunized MyD88-deficient mice. The activation of NK cells by plasmid-DNA injection was associated with an increase in their effector functions that depended on the expressed antigen. Maturation of NK cells was abrogated in the VS-4718 price absence of T cells, suggesting that cross talk exists between NK cells and antigen-specific T cells. Taken together, our data unravel the mechanics of plasmid vector-induced maturation of NK cells and plasmid-encoded antigen-dependent activation of NK cells required for a crucial role of NK cells in DNA vaccine-induced immunogenicity.”
“Objective. Two F2 functional polymorphisms, rs1799963 (G20210A) and rs3136516 (A19911G), are known

to be associated with elevated levels/activity of prothrombin (encoded by F2) and risk of thrombosis. Since patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have high risk of thrombosis and accelerated atherosclerosis and also high prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies, we hypothesized that these two F2 polymorphisms could affect risk of SLE.\n\nMethods. We investigated these polymorphisms in 627 women with SLE (84% Caucasian Americans, 16% African Americans) and 657 female controls (78% Caucasian Americans, 22% African Americans).\n\nResults. While the rs1799963 A allele was almost absent in African Americans, it was present at similar to 2% frequency in Caucasian Americans and showed no significant association with SLE.

Materials and Methods: An IRB approved retrospective


Materials and Methods: An IRB approved retrospective

review was performed to identify 38 toes in 27 patients treated with the StayFuse (TM) (Nexa Orthopaedics) device with a mean followup of 31 months. The indications for surgery were primary deformity in 12 toes and recurrent deformities in 26 toes. Results: Union occurred in 23 of 38 (60.5%). The union rate was nine of 12 for primary procedures and 53.8% (14/26) for revisions. Corona! PIP LY3023414 in vivo alignment demonstrated no change in 33 of 38 cases (86.8%) and changed in five of 38 (13.2%). Sagittal PIP alignment demonstrated no change in 36 of 38 cases (94.7%), and changed in 2/38 (5.3%). Including nonunion, the overall complication rate was 55.3% (21/38) (15

nonunions; three hardware failures (two (bent) not requiring intervention and one (broke) leading to a rotational deformity requiring revision), one intraoperative fracture (without sequelae), one requiring MP surgery, and one requiring a larger implant. The index surgery for all three of the patients that required a second surgery was for a recurrent deformity. All three patients requiring a second surgery NU7026 cost occurred in the nonunion group. Conclusion: The StayFuse (TM) intramedullary fusion device was efficacious in maintaining alignment in the treatment of lesser toe deformities with a relatively low reoperation rate at mid-term followup.”
“In a previous article published in this journal in 2010 the author dealt with the problematic aspects and at the tome experienced lively but not always factual responses.\n\nThe Federal Administrative Court has now made generally valid decisions in a case involving a similar public sector to the rescue services, namely

Selleck Nocodazole the police. Whether this will be valid for the rescue services and if so to what extent, will be examined in this article.\n\nAll named persons involved in an emergency mission do not have to assert a special authorized interest to justify the publication and usage of photographs. On the contrary, the producer and user must first obtain the permission from the person photographed. In this way the case differs from other verdicts of the Federal Administrative Court.”
“Objectives: We sought to assess whether serum salusin-beta levels are correlated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We measured serum salusin-beta levels in 278 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) for the evaluation of CAD and in 126 healthy controls. Serum salusin-beta levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of CAD was assessed by angiographic coronary atherosclerosis index score system. Results: Serum salusin-beta levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing CAG (n = 278) than those in healthy controls (n = 126) (3.81 +/- 0.99 vs 4.34 +/- 1.40 nmol/L, P smaller than 0.01).

This model was able to explicitly reproduce neuritic paths accoun

This model was able to explicitly reproduce neuritic paths accounting for the complex interplay between extracellular and intracellular environments, through the sensing

capability of the growth cone. The reliability of this approach was proven by using quantitative metrics, numerically supporting the similarity between in silico and biological results in regular conditions GSK1210151A mouse (control and attraction). Finally, the model was able to qualitatively predict emergent and counterintuitive phenomena resulting from complex boundary conditions.”
“It is challenging to find membrane mimics that stabilize the native structures, dynamics, and functions of membrane proteins. In a recent advance, nanodiscs have been shown to provide a bilayer environment compatible with solution NMR. We show that

increasing the lipid to “belt” peptide ratio expands their diameter, slows their reorientation rate, and allows the protein-containing discs to be aligned in a magnetic field for oriented sample solid-state NMR. The spectroscopic properties of membrane proteins with one to seven transmembrane helices in q = 0.1 isotropic bicelles, similar to 10 nm diameter isotropic nanodiscs, similar to 30 nm diameter magnetically aligned macrodiscs, and q = 5 magnetically aligned bicelles are compared.”
“The competition between arginases and NO synthases (NOS) for their common substrate L-arginine can be important selleck chemicals in the airways hyperreactivity. We investigated the effect of the simultaneous modulation of arginase and NOS activities in allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity. We analysed the response of tracheal and lung tissue smooth muscle to histamine or

acetylcholine after administration N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), aminoguanidine (AG) and N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) in the Selleck LY2835219 combinations in in vitro conditions. The results show the decrease of ovalbumin-induced hyperreactivity after inhibition of arginase activity with NOHA. A supplementation of L-arginine caused favourable effect on the airway smooth muscle response. We found the airway reactivity decrease on the whole if we used the combination of NOS and arginase inhibitors. The inhibition of both types of enzymes caused more expressive effect in tracheal smooth muscles. We recorded the difference in the response to histamine or acetylcholine. The simultaneous inhibition of iNOS (with AG) and arginase (with NOHA) evoked the most expressive effect. Results show the importance of competition of both types enzymes – NOS and arginase for the balance of theirs activities in the control of airways bronchomotoric tone in the conditions of the airways hyperreactivity.

“The growth kinetics of polymer thin films prepared by pla

“The growth kinetics of polymer thin films prepared by plasma-based deposition method were explored using atomic force microscopy. The growth behavior of the first layer of the polythiophene somewhat differs from that of the other layers because the first layer is directly deposited on the substrate, whereas the other layers are deposited on the polymer itself. After the deposition of the PD-1/PD-L1 mutation first layer, each layer is formed with a cycle of 15 s. The present work represents the growth kinetics of the plasma-polymerized films and could be helpful for further studies on growth kinetics in other material systems as well as for applications of plasma-polymerized thin

“GH secretion is increased in scrapie-diseased sheep. Although

the role of the somatotropic axis as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor is well documented, no studies have been carried out on the mechanisms and functional significance of somatotropic perturbation in the pathophysiology of prion-associated neurodegenerative disease. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased GH secretion observed in a natural animal prion disease, scrapie, might reflect it general lack of action of IGF-1 and, more particularly, a suppressed IGF-1 negative feedback. The effect of human recombinant IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) on spontaneous and GHRH-induced secretions was studied in so-called “scrapie-resistant” and “scrapie sensitive” rains in vivo and in vitro on pituitary dissociated cells from AZD6244 inhibitor both groups. The effect of rhIGF-1 infusion on spontaneous

and GHRH-induced GH secretions was evaluated during the preclinical and clinical stages of the disease in vivo. Our results indicated that rhIGF-1 suppressed spontaneous GH secretion but not GHRH-induced secretion in vivo. RhIGF-1 had no effect on spontaneous and GHRH-induced GH secretion from dissociated pituitary cells. Clinical scrapie, was associated with a significantly greater rhIGF-1-induced inhibition of GH spontaneous secretion (mean +/- S.E.M. inhibition of GH secretion: 31 +/- 8% vs. 45 +/- 4% RepSox in control and scrapie-affected rains, respectively). It can be concluded that the increase in GH secretion in scrapie-affected animals does not reflect a global lack of action of IGF-1. Further investigations arc required to determine if other IGF-1 effects and more particularly neuroprotective mechanisms are altered in prion-associated neurodegenerative diseases. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are important chaperones, which are involved in various signal pathways and regulate lots of physiological processes. Early research suggested that some Hsps are involved in insect development. However, few studies have been carried out to explore the roles of Hsps, especially in larval-pupal metamorphosis.

Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels

Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence,

FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels. Kidney International (2011) 79, 1370-1378;

doi:10.1038/ki.2011.47; published online 9 March 2011″
“Co-circulation selleck kinase inhibitor of subgenotypes IA and IB of hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been reported in South Africa, South America, Europe, and the United States. In this study, phylogenetic and recombination learn more analyses were performed for the first time on 31 complete HAV genomes from infected humans and simians. Three potentially significant intra-genotypic recombination events (I-III) were identified by recombination detection analysis. Recombination events I and II occurred between LXH254 the lineages represented, respectively, by the Japanese isolate AH2 (AB020565, subgenotype IA) and

the North African isolate MBB (M20273, subgenotype IB), giving rise to the recombinant Uruguayan isolate HAV5 (EU131373). Recombination event III occurred between the lineages represented, respectively, by the North African isolate MBB (M20273, subgenotype IB) and the German isolate GBM (X75215, subgenotype IA), resulting in the Italian isolate FG (X83302). The findings demonstrate that humans can be co-infected with different HAV subgenotypes and provide valuable hints for future research on HAV diversity.”
“I-h channels are uniquely positioned to act as neuromodulatory control points for tuning hippocampal theta (4-12 Hz) and gamma (25 Hz) oscillations, oscillations which are thought to have importance for organization of information flow. contributes to neuronal membrane resonance and resting membrane potential, and is modulated by second messengers. We investigated oscillatory control using a multiscale computer model of hippocampal CA3, where each cell class (pyramidal, basket, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells), contained type-appropriate isoforms of. Our model demonstrated that modulation of pyramidal and basket allows tuning theta and gamma oscillation frequency and amplitude. Pyramidal also controlled cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and allowed shifting gamma generation towards particular phases of the theta cycle, effected via ‘s ability to set pyramidal excitability.

Furthermore, permeability increased by two to three orders while

Furthermore, permeability increased by two to three orders while compressive modulus decreased with increasing porosity of the scaffolds. Application of these

scaffolds for tissue engineering was tested by encapsulation of hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). All the scaffolds showed similar cell viability; however, cell proliferation was enhanced under porous conditions. Furthermore, porous alginate hydrogels resulted in formation of larger spheroids and higher albumin secretion compared to nonporous conditions. These data suggest that porous alginate hydrogels may have provided a better environment for cell proliferation SB273005 datasheet and albumin production. This may be due to the enhanced mass transfer of nutrients, oxygen and selleck chemical waste removal, which is potentially beneficial

for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.”
“Organising pneumonia (otherwise referred to as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is characterised histologically by plugs of granulation tissue, which are present predominantly within small airways, alveolar ducts and peri-bronchiolar alveoli. This pattern is not specific for any disorder or cause, but is one type of inflammatory response to pulmonary injury, which may be seen in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Typically, organising pneumonia responds very well to corticosteroid treatment; however, a small percentage of patients appear to develop progressive fibrosis.”
“Glycosylation can have a multifaceted impact on the properties and functions selleck products of peptides and plays a critical role in interacting

with or binding to the target molecules. Herein, based on the previously reported method for macrocyclic glycopeptide synthesis, two series of tyrocidine A glycosylated derivatives (1a-f and 2a-f) were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities to further study the structure and activity relationships (SAR). Biological studies showed that the synthetic glycosylated derivatives had good antibacterial activities towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. SAR studies based on various glycans and linkages were used to enhance the biochemical profile, resulting in the identification of several potent antibiotics, such as 1f, with a great improved therapeutic index than tyrocidine A. Copyright (c) 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Introduction: The paper reviews progress in addressing the HIV epidemic and questions whether at the midway mark to the conclusion of the Millennium Development Goal set for 2015, the goal number 6 of halting and reversing the HIV epidemic will be reached.\n\nMethods: Fourteen 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS country progress reports and 18 country reports on Universal Access 2009 were analyzed.

89 [95% CI: 1 18 - 3 06]) Conclusion: The incidence and risk

89 [95% CI: 1.18 - 3.06]).\n\nConclusion: The incidence and risk factors for AKI after cardiac surgery vary significantly according to the diagnostic criteria used. In our analysis, the KDIGO criterion was superior to AKIN and RIFLE with regard its prognostic power.”
“Using antiretroviral therapy (ART) raises numerous issues in intensive care units (ICU): drug administration and kinetics issues in ventilated patients and/or with gastric tube, drug interactions, and risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This is why a lot of ICU physicians stop ART on admission and few initiate it during the ICU stay. However, the literature review suggests that the earlier

the ART is started the more Dinaciclib datasheet effective it is. Furthermore, stopping ART could be hazardous for some patients. The authors present the most frequent issues raised by ART use in an ICU and how to deal with them. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6)

and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. Pinometostat manufacturer The material was chosen due to its pliability – that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratorio de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison

with the D larvae used. From find more this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.”
“Having established an ambulatory service for patients with suspected and proven PE, we reviewed our outcomes. All patients referred from June 2010 to May 2012 were analysed. Of 971 patients referred, 905 underwent complete assessment (66 admitted as ineligible). 754 (77.

The fire performance of the coated GRE

composite was stud

The fire performance of the coated GRE

composite was studied by cone calorimetry at 35 and 50 kW/m(2) heat fluxes. While the sample with similar to 500 mu m thick coating did not ignite at both heat fluxes, the one with the similar to 300 mu m thick coating ignited at 50 kW/m(2), Elacridar however the time-to-ignition was delayed from 60s in the uncoated sample to 195 s and the peak heat release rate reduced from 572 kW/m(2) to 86 kW/m(2). The coatings did not peel off when subjected to a tape pull test and resisted cracking/debonding during an impact drop test of up to 5 J energy. However, the coatings are hydrophilic, showing significant mass loss in a water soak test. The improvement of the hydrophobicity of these coatings is a focus of our future research. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.”
“To gain a global view of the genomic response of neurons to normobaric and hyperbaric hyperoxic stress, we performed a microarray analysis of gene expression after exposure to varying levels of partial oxygen pressures. Rat neurons were exposed to normobaric hyperoxia, hyperbaric (2, 4, and 6 atmosphere

absolute) air or hyperbaric O(2). We identified 183 genes significantly altered (increased or decreased a parts per thousand yen1.5-fold) in response to pressure and/or oxidative stress. Among them, 17 genes changed in response to all exposure conditions. More genes were altered in response to hyperbaric air than hyperbaric O(2). The altered genes included factors associated with stress responses,

selleck chemical transport/neurotransmission, signal transduction, and transcription factors. HDAC inhibitor The results may serve as guidance for selection of biomarkers of hyperoxia and hyperbaric O(2) response and provide a starting point for further studies to investigate the global molecular mechanisms underlying hyperbaric oxidative stress.”
“In the present study toxic effects of active molluscicidal component of Areca catechu and Carica papaya was studied on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. In in vivo and in vitro exposure of arecoline (active component of Areca catechu seed) and papain (C papaya latex and seed) significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activity in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicate that arecoline and papain caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of AChE, respectively, whereas arecoline caused competitive-non-competitive inhibition of ACP/ALP and papain caused non-competitive inhibition of ACP/ALP. Thus the inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP by arecoline and papain in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata may be the cause of molluscicidal activity of A. catechu and C. papaya, respectively. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.