Future perspectives of the method in the screening of SAERs candi

Future perspectives of the method in the screening of SAERs candidates with no COX-2 inhibitory activity are discussed.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Whether carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater should be classified with biliary tract tumors and treated in a similar manner remains unknown. We sought to compare the outcomes of similarly staged periampullary adenocarcinomas (AAs) and analyze the chemotherapy responsiveness of AAs.\n\nA total of 905 patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinomas were identified from a prospective surgical registry from 1988 to 2010. A second cohort of 64 metastatic AA patients from 1992 to 2009 who received either front-line fluoropyrimidine-based or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was also identified.\n\nOverall survival (OS) for AAs was similar to survival with duodenal adenocarcinomas, but was significantly different from both extrahepatic biliary and pancreatic adenocarcinomas LY2835219 Compound Library research buy (P < 0.001 for each comparison). In multivariate analysis, AAs had a significantly improved OS in comparison with extrahepatic biliary adenocarcinomas (HR = 1.97, P = 0.006). Fluoropyrimidine-based as opposed to gemcitabine-based

chemotherapy for metastatic AAs resulted in a significant improvement in time to progression (P = 0.001) but only a trend toward benefit for OS (P = 0.07) in multivariate analysis.\n\nDifferences in the natural history of ampullary and extrahepatic biliary adenocarcinomas exist. Analyses of metastatic ampullary adenocarcinomas suggest that fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy may represent a more appropriate front-line chemotherapy approach.”
“The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four

of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences (737 base pairs) of the five Napabucasin research buy isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.”
“An assessment of the impact of projected climate change on forest ecosystems in India based on climate projections of the Regional Climate Model of the Hadley Centre (HadRM3) and the global dynamic vegetation model IBIS for A1B scenario is conducted for short-term (2021-2050) and long-term (2071-2100) periods.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Background: Pa

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Pancreatic cancer

is often accompanied by severe abdominal or back pain. It’s the first study to evaluate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on pancreatic cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial compared electroacupuncture with control acupuncture using the placebo needle.\n\nMethods: Sixty patients with pancreatic cancer pain were randomly assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and the placebo control group (n = 30). Patients were treated on Jiaji (Ex-B2) points T8-T12 bilaterally for 30 min once a day for 3 days. Pain intensity was assessed with numerical rated scales (NRS) before the treatment (Baseline), after 3 treatments, and 2 days follow-up.\n\nResults: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After 3 treatment, CHIR-99021 pain intensity on NRS decreased compared Adriamycin datasheet with Baseline (-1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.46 to -1.87) in the electroacupuncture group; there was little change (-0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to -0.35) in control group; the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Follow-up also found a significant reduction in pain intensity in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group (P < 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for relieving

pancreatic cancer pain. Copyright (C) 2013, IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier selleck products India, a division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“CD39 (NTPDase1), a critical immune and vascular ecto-nucleotidase, hydrolyses pro-inflammatory

and pro-thrombotic nucleotides (adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate) to adenosine. In humans, CD39 is the dominant ecto-nucleotidase in placental trophoblastic tissues and modulates ATP-dependent trophoblastic functions. CD39 is an integral component of regulatory T cells (Treg), which are central to immunological tolerance and maintenance of normal pregnancy. We examined the impact of CD39 overexpression in a mouse model of preeclampsia. Matings were performed between virginal BALB/c female (wild-type (WT) or CD39 transgenic (CD39TG)) and C57BL/6 male mice. On days 10 and 12 of pregnancy BALB/c Th1-polarized cells were injected. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured throughout pregnancy. Mice were sacrificed at day 15 of pregnancy. Following transfer of Th1-polarized cells, SBP of pregnant WT mice increased (118 +/- 3mmHg to 142 +/- 5mmHg). Although ultrastructural changes were evident in the kidney this was not accompanied by significant proteinuria. SBP remained unchanged (115 +/- 2mmHg to 114 +/- 3mmHg) in pregnant CD39TG mice without evidence of renal lesions. We conclude that gestational hypertension can be induced in mice following transfer of maternally derived Th1-polarized cells and that overexpression of CD39 is protective in this model.

The collapse mechanism and system reliability index of a stochast

The collapse mechanism and system reliability index of a stochastic framed structure are determined through iterative computations of the PSFEM. Compared with the failure mode approaches

in traditional system reliability analysis, the proposed method avoids two major difficulties, namely the identification of significant failure modes and estimation of the joint probability of failure modes. The influences of the correlation structure and scale of fluctuation of the random field upon system reliability are investigated to demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed methodology in system reliability analysis of spatial variance frames.”
“Single-layer experimental particleboards were made from various sizes of Arundo Galardin research buy donax particles bonded with urea formaldehyde resin. The experimental panels were tested for their mechanical strength including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bonding (IB), screw holding strength (SH), and physical properties (density, moisture content, thickness swelling (TS), and water absorption (WA)) according to the procedures defined by European

Union (EN) Standards. The overall results showed that most panels exceeded the EN Standards for MOE, MOR, and IB. VX-770 solubility dmso The mechanical properties of the particleboard were enhanced as the density increased. Particle size was found to have a profound effect on the board properties.”
“Cough headache is a type of headache lasting one minute to 30 minutes and arising from activities, such as cough

and Valsalva maneuver, which increase intra-abdominal pressure. It is seen in adults aged forty years and older. It is bilateral, intense and stabbing type of headache. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old patient presented with severe headache which was aggravated with defecation, lifting a heavy object and going up and downstairs. Her neurologic examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1. Surgical operation was planned, but she denied surgical operation. Indomethacin was not administered due to intractable dyspeptic complaints. Topiramate was administered LY2606368 mouse to lower intracranial pressure. Her headache symptom considerably disappeared. Topiramate was stopped after 6 months, but her headache recurred. Hereupon, topiramate was re-administered. Headache symptom was quite relieved. We concluded that, topiramate could be medical alternative for secondary headaches, such as cough headache in case of Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013; 50: 82-83)”
“The lack of toxicological information on many of the compounds that humans use or are exposed to, intentionally or unintentionally, poses a big problem in risk assessment.

In the final step, alpha-ketoglutarate semialdehyde is oxidized b

In the final step, alpha-ketoglutarate semialdehyde is oxidized by a dehydrogenase to alpha-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. An X-ray structure for the LyxD from Labrenzia aggregata IAM 12614 with Mg2+ in the active site was determined that confirmed the expectation based on sequence alignments that LyxDs possess a conserved catalytic His-Asp dyad at the end of seventh and sixth beta-strands of the (beta/alpha)(7)beta-barrel domain as well as a conserved KxR motif at the end of second beta-strand;

substitutions for His 316 or Arg 179 inactivated the enzyme. This is the first example of both the LyxD function in the enolase superfamily and a pathway for the catabolism of L-lyxonate.”
“Background: Pelvic lymph node dissection in Selleckchem DMH1 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer is not without morbidity and its therapeutical benefit is still a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to develop Navitoclax ic50 a model that allows preoperative determination of the minimum number of lymph nodes needed to be removed at radical prostatectomy to ensure true nodal status. Methods: We analysed data from 4770 patients treated with radical prostatectomy and

pelvic lymph node dissection between 2000 and 2011 from eight academic centres. For external validation of our model, we used data from Evofosfamide a cohort of 3595 patients who underwent an anatomically defined extended pelvic lymph node dissection. We estimated the sensitivity of pathological nodal staging using a beta-binomial model and developed

a novel clinical (preoperative) nodal staging score (cNSS), which represents the probability that a patient has lymph node metastasis as a function of the number of examined nodes. Results: In the development and validation cohorts, the probability of missing a positive lymph node decreases with increase in the number of nodes examined. A 90% cNSS can be achieved in the development and validation cohorts by examining 1-6 nodes in cT1 and 6-8 nodes in cT2 tumours. With 11 nodes examined, patients in the development and validation cohorts achieved a cNSS of 90% and 80% with cT3 tumours, respectively. Conclusions: Pelvic lymph node dissection is the only reliable technique to ensure accurate nodal staging in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer. The minimum number of examined lymph nodes needed for accurate nodal staging may be predictable, being strongly dependent on prostate cancer characteristics at diagnosis.”
“Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG).

It was chance that made Cajal, during his doctorate studies, have

It was chance that made Cajal, during his doctorate studies, have his first contact with histology and force him to study the then current theories about pathogenesis of inflammation. Thus, he gained knowledge of the vascular hypothesis, by Julius Cohnheim, a German pathologist who, opposing the opinion of his teacher and father of cellular pathology, Rudolf Virchow, made leukocytes the protagonists of inflammation, given their ability to develop ameboid movements directed by chemical selleck screening library signals. Cohnheim’s chemotactic theory deeply influenced Cajal’s conception of biology. So, the basic postulates of chemotaxis can be identified at different moments in Cajal’s research, from the description of the “growth

cone” in embryonic neuroblasts, the origin of the neurotrophic theory, to the proposal of the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. From Cajal’s point of view, the neurons move during their development and also adapt to different external circumstances. Chemical endogenous substances can stimulate this movement in a similar way to leukocytes during the process of PR-171 in vivo inflammation. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological

barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics in apicomplexans remain poorly characterized. In the absence of a complete ARP2/3 complex, the formin GDC-0941 concentration homology 2 domain containing proteins and the accessory protein

profilin are presumed to orchestrate actin polymerization during host cell invasion. Here, we have undertaken the biochemical and functional characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii formins and established that they act in concert as actin nucleators during invasion. The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. The contribution of each formin individually and jointly was revealed by an approach based upon the expression of dominant mutants with modified FH2 domains impaired in actin binding but still able to dimerize with their respective endogenous formin. These mutated FH2 domains were fused to the ligand-controlled destabilization domain (DD-FKBP) to achieve conditional expression. This strategy proved unique in identifying the non-redundant and critical roles of both formins in invasion. These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells.”
“Background: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is “pathogenic” through adverse endocrine and immune contributions to metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

A high number and variety of microbes, including a high proportio

A high number and variety of microbes, including a high proportion of fungal pathogens, were detected.”
“Purpose: Paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters inhibit restenosis after coronary and peripheral angioplasty (PCI,PTA). The aim of this study was to investigate paclitaxel plasma levels and laboratory parameters following PTA with paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) in peripheral arteries.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This single treatment arm, multicenter study included

14 patients with Rutherford stage 1 – 5 with occlusions of up to 5 cm or >= 70% diameter stenosis of the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries (SFA, PA). PTA was performed using up to three PCB catheters. The paclitaxel plasma levels and safety laboratory Histone Methyltransf inhibitor parameters were determined by collecting blood samples pre-intervention,

immediately post-intervention, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 hours and 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention (p.i.). Vital signs were monitored to assess clinical safety.\n\nResults: PTA was performed successfully in all patients. Paclitaxel plasma levels were always below a level and duration known to cause systemic side effects. A mean peak paclitaxel plasma level (40 ng/ml) was reached immediately p.i. and decreased rapidly below detectable levels in more than half of the patients already 2 hours p.i. The paclitaxel plasma concentrations returned to values below detectable levels at 24 hours p.i. Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor in all patients. Laboratory parameters and vital signs did not give any reason for safety concerns. No adverse events associated with balloon Bafilomycin A1 mechanism of action coating were observed.\n\nConclusion:

The results of 14 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease show no systemic bioavailability of paclitaxel >24 hours after PTA with one or more PCB catheters, indicating that the PCB catheter is safe with regard to possible systemic effects.”
“Background/Aim: Unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer with very slow tumour growth rate does not necessarily require for strong short-interval chemotherapy. In the present study, we administered monthly chemotherapy and aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the specific treatment schedule in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer with slow tumour growth rate. Patients and Methods: Since 2009, at our Institution, patients’ whose serum carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) values on the treatment day were not higher than those before initial chemotherapy, and patients who did not wish to undergo intensive chemotherapy, were prospectively scheduled for specific chemotherapy. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 10 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received monthly chemotherapy were enrolled in the current study.

Samples were collected after slaughter, using allantocentesis and

Samples were collected after slaughter, using allantocentesis and amniocentesis. Sixty samples of fetal fluids were analyzed. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), glucose, total protein (TP), urea, creatinine, Ca, chloride (Cl), Na, and K concentrations were measured using commercially available kits. The AP concentration in amniotic fluid was higher than that in,allantoic fluid during the three gestational phases (P smaller than .05). There were no differences between glucose mean values of allantoic and those of amniotic fluids (P smaller than .05). However, glucose values

were higher in the allantoic fluid in the last trimester of pregnancy. TP was higher in the amniotic fluid than in allantoic fluid (P smaller than .05). Urea values varied among the phases; however, there were no differences between the amniotic and allantoic Thiazovivin chemical structure fluid values (P bigger than .05). Creatinine values were higher in allantoic fluid

(P smaller than .05). Na and Cl concentrations were higher in amniotic fluid (P smaller than .05). However, Ca and K concentrations were higher in the allantoic fluid. (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The number of children in need of mechanical circulatory support has increased substantially over the last two decades, due to the technological progress made in surgery and intensive care, leading to improved survival of patients with congenital heart

disease. In addition, selleck primary myocardial dysfunction related to myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy may cause end-stage cardiac failure in children or HDAC inhibitor infants, although not as frequently as in adults. The need for mechanical circulatory support may be either temporary until spontaneous myocardial recovery, as in postcardiotomy cardiac failure, or prolonged until heart transplantation in the absence of recovery. Two types of mechanical circulatory devices are suitable for the paediatric population: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for short-term support; and ventricular assist devices for long-term support as a bridge to transplantation. The aim of this review is to describe the Specific issues related to paediatric mechanical circulatory support and the different types of devices available, to report on their rapidly growing use worldwide and on the outcomes for each indication and type of device, and to provide a perspective on the future developments and remaining challenges in this field. (C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Soft biological tissues adapt their collagen network to the mechanical environment. Collagen remodeling and cell traction are both involved in this process. The present study presents a collagen adaptation model which includes strain-dependent collagen degradation and contact-guided cell traction.

“Material and methods We followed 619 patients with ische

“Material and methods. We followed 619 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and

multivessel involvement of coronary arteries: 317 patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, group 1) and 302 patients subjected to multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, group 2) with implantation of drug eluting stents. Both groups had comparable clinical characteristics. During hospitalization we registered deaths and unfavorable cardiological and cerebrovascular events. In remote period after revascularization KPT-8602 supplier we assessed survival, angina recurrences and related repeat revascularizations, and rate of severe cardiovascular IPI-145 inhibitor complications (composite of deaths, acute myocardial infarctions [AMI], stroke, and repeat myocardial revascularizations). Results. During hospitalization there were no significant differences between groups by parameters studied: death rate was 1.7 and 0.9%, that of AMI 2.6 and 1.9%, of stroke 0.9% and 0, of composite of death, AMI, and stroke 5.1 and 1.9% (p=0.37) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Survival in remote period was 90.2 (group 1) and 92.7% (group 2). Comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival curves also revealed no significant differences between groups. Angina recurrence/repeat

revascularization took place in 54 (17.0%) and in 64 (21.2%) patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.128). Repeat revascularization was carried out in 32 of 54 patients (59.3%) in group 1 and in 58 Of 64 patients (90.6%) in group 2. Rate of severe unfavorable events during whole period of follow up was 33.1% in group 1 and 30.5% in group 2 (p bigger than 0.05). Conclusion. In IHD patients with multivessel coronary artery involvement and low Syntax Score

immediate and long term (5 year) results of stenting with drug eluting stents are not inferior to results of CABG.”
“Fluorescein angiography is an established technique for examining the functional integrity of the retinal microcirculation for early Selleck Fosbretabulin detection of changes due to retinopathy. This paper describes a new method for the registration of large Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope sequences (SLO), where the patient has been injected with a fluorescent dye. This allows the measurement of parameters such as the arteriovenous passage time. Due to the long time needed to acquire these sequences, there will inevitably be eye movement, which must be corrected prior to the application of quantitative analysis. The algorithm described here combines mutual information-based registration and landmark-based registration.

Based on these

limited data, in the US costs associated w

Based on these

limited data, in the US costs associated with systemic therapy were greater than costs for surgery or radiotherapy. However, this trend was not seen in Europe, where surgery incurred a higher cost than radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Most studies investigating AZD5153 research buy the direct healthcare costs of HNC have utilized US databases of claims to public and private payers. Data from these studies suggested that costs generally are higher for HNC patients with recurrent and/or metastatic disease, for patients undergoing surgery, and for those patients insured by private payers. Further work is needed, particularly in Europe and other regions outside the USA; prospective studies assessing the cost associated with HNC would allow for more systematic comparison GSK-3 inhibitor of costs, and would provide valuable economic information to payers, providers, and patients.”
“Previous studies have indicated that the p38 MAPK participates in signaling events that lead to the death of the insulin-producing beta-cell. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of the TGF-beta-activated protein kinase 1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) in the cytokine-induced activation of p38. Levels of TAB1 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, and TAB1 expression

in mouse and human islet cells was down-regulated using lipofection of diced-small interfering RNA. TAB1 overexpression in beta-TC6 cells was achieved by transient transfections followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and ERK was assessed by immunoblotting, and viability was determined using vital staining with bisbenzimide and propidium iodide. We observed that TAB1 is expressed in insulin-producing cells. Cytokine (IL-1 beta + interferon-gamma)-stimulated p38 phosphorylation was significantly increased by

TAB1 alpha overexpression, but not TAB1 beta overexpression, in beta-TC6 cells. The TAB1 alpha-augmented p38 phosphorylation was paralleled www.selleckchem.com/products/ag-881.html by an increased cell death rate. Treatment of islet cells with diced-small interfering RNA specific for TAB1, but not for TGF-beta-activated kinase 1, resulted in lowered cytokine-induced p38 phosphorylation and protection against cell death. The cytokine-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and ERK was not affected by changes in TAB1 levels. Finally, TAB1 phosphorylation was decreased by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. We conclude that TAB1 alpha, but not TAB1 beta, plays an important role in the activation of p38 in insulin-producing cells and therefore also in cytokine-induced beta-cell death.”
“Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres.

A total of 1,400 women were randomly selected from the Danish Nat

A total of 1,400 women were randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort among those who provided blood samples early in pregnancy and gave birth to liveborn singletons in 1996-2002. Weight and height information at 7 years was available for 811 children. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for analyses.

Maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations were overall inversely but nonsignificantly associated with the children’s body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of overweight at 7 years of age. In conclusion, plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA in pregnant women did not seem to have any appreciable influence on their children’s anthropometry at this point in childhood.”
“Nucleotide sugars are essential glycosyl donors for Leloir-type glycosyltransferases. The UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine click here pyrophosphorylase (UDP-GalNAc PP; AGX1) from Homo sapiens catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine from N-acetylgalactosamine 1-phosphate and UTP. In this Letter, we systematically studied nucleotide substrate specificity of AGX1 during LDN-193189 its uridyltransfer reaction, and

described the capability of AGX1 to catalyze dUTP and dTTP to their corresponding nucleotide sugars for the first time. Furthermore, using such a eukaryotic enzyme, we synthesized dUDP-GalNAc and dTDP-GalNAc in multiple mg scale in vitro efficiently and rapidly. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Binding of 18-carbon unsaturated oleic and linoleic acid to lactoglobulin, the milk protein, has been studied for the first time by isothermal titration calorimetiy (ITC) and X-ray crystallography.

Crystal structures determined to resolution 2.10 angstrom have revealed presence of single fatty acid molecule bound in beta-barrel, the primary binding site, with carboxyl group hydrogen bonded to Glu62. The aliphatic chain of both ligands is in almost linear conformation SN-38 research buy and their interactions with the protein are similar to observed in structure of lactoglobulin with stearic acid. The ITC experiments showed that binding of unsaturated fatty acids to LGB is spontaneous and exothermic. The stoichiometry of binding is lower than 1.0, association constant is 9.7 x 10(5) M-1 and 9.0 x 10(5) M-1 for oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Solvent relief seems to be the major contributor to entropic changes upon fatty acid binding to lactoglobulin. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Psychosocial assessment is a central aspect of managing self-harm in hospitals, designed to encompass needs and risk, and to lead to further care. However, little is known about service user experiences of assessment, or what aspects of assessment service users value.