monocytogenes growth under different stress conditions, most notably osmotic and low temperature stress [19, 20]. L. monocytogenes
σL has also been reported to be involved in resistance to the antimicrobial peptide mesentericin Y105 . Finally, studies conducted to date on the L. monocytogenes σC regulon typically identified few genes as σC-dependent. Chaturongakul et al. (2011) were only Acadesine research buy able to identify and confirm, by see more qRT-PCR, a single gene (lmo0422) as σC-dependent; lmo0422, which encodes LstR, a lineage II specific thermal regulator, is in the same operon as sigC and this finding is consistent with previous data suggesting that the sigC operon is auto-regulated [3, 7]. Zhang et al. (2005) also found some evidence that σC may contribute to thermal resistance in the L. monocytogenes lineage
II strain 10403S, when grown to log phase ; by contrast, Chaturongakul et al. (2011) did not find any evidence for reduced heat resistance when an independent L. monocytogenes 10403S ΔsigC strain was grown to stationary phase prior to heat exposure . Previous studies  have suggested considerable overlap between different L. monocytogenes alternative σ factor regulons (e.g., between the σB and the σH regulon), suggesting the potential for redundancies as well as compensation for deletion of a single alternative σ factor by other σ factors. We thus hypothesized that an experimental approach that eliminates these potential redundancies is needed to gain a better understanding of the roles of σC, σH, and σL in regulating production of specific proteins in L. monocytogenes. SU5416 mouse As an experimental approach, we selected to create an L. monocytogenes 10403S quadruple mutant with a
non-polar deletion of all four genes that encode alternative σ factors (i.e., strain ΔBCHL) as well as corresponding mutants with deletions of three alternative σ factors (ΔBCH, ΔBCL, and ΔBHL), which thus expressed only σL, σH, and σC, respectively. These strains were then used for proteomic comparisons between the quadruple mutant strain and the three different strains expressing only a single alternative σ factor. We particularly focused on exploring the contributions of these alternative σ factors to regulating protein production buy Obeticholic Acid as, despite availability of a number of proteomics data sets on the σB regulon [15, 16], only a single proteomics study on the σL regulon is available . While alternative σ factors directly regulate transcription of genes, it is increasingly clear that alternative σ factors also make important indirect contributions to protein production via mechanisms other than transcriptional activation of a σ factor dependent promoter upstream of a protein encoding gene, including through regulation of non-coding RNAs or through direct transcriptional up-regulation of a protein that in turn, directly or indirectly, affects production of other proteins .