“Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an inde


“Background. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for morbidity/mortality in patients with

end stage renal disease (ESRD). Our study aimed to identify prevalence as well as independent risk factors that contribute to the development of LV geometric remodeling in our HD patients. Methods. The left ventricles of 116 HD patients were classified echocardiographically into four different geometric patterns on the basis of LV mass and relative wall thickness. Furthermore, BIX01294 we measured inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and its collapsibility index (CI) by echocardiography. Finally, we modeled a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the predictors of LV geometry. Results. Our study provides evidence that HD patients had a prevalence of abnormal LV geometry in 92% and LVH in 81%. We found all four geometric models of LV. Most dominant were eccentric LVH. Concentric LVH was observed in 37, normal geometry (NG) in 9, and concentric remodeling (CR) in 13 of HD patients. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the cL VII group (95 +/- 10 mmHg) than in the NG and CR groups (81.6 +/- 12.3 and 80 +/- 11.8, respectively, p < 0.001). The cL VH and eCL VH groups had significantly lower mean hemoglobin SBE-β-CD ic50 (10.3 +/- 1.4g/dL and 10.6 +/- 1g/dL, respectively) compared

with the NG group (11.9 +/- 1.4g/dL), p < 0.001. Furthermore, interdialytic weight gain (kg) was significantly higher in eCL

VII group (3.13 +/- 0.8) than in NG group (2.3 +/- 1.1), p < 0.001. Mean IVC index of the eL VH group (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m(2)) was significantly higher than corresponding indexes of NG (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m2), CR (8.31 find protocol +/- 1.32 mm/m(2)) and cL VH (8.12 +/- 2.06 mm/m(2)) groups (p < 0.001 for each comparisons). Conclusion. Mean arterial pressure, hemoglobin, IVC index, and interdialytic weight gain were found to be independent predictors of LV geometry (R(2) = 0.147; p < 0.001) in HD patients.”
“Novel phenolic type of thermoset resins were synthesized, and their mechanical and toughness properties were evaluated. Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) phenolic resins were modified to broaden their applications for modern composite structures. A first modification consisted of copolymerization of Phenol with Cardanol during the synthesis of resole phenolic (CPF) resins. The modified phenolic resins (CPF) were prepared at various molar ratios of total Phenol to Formaldehyde (F : P ratio) and with different weight ratios of Phenol to Cardanol. CPF resins with a maximum content of 40 wt % of Cardanol were synthesized and used. The CPF resins were applied as a plasticizer and toughening agent to the base PF resins. Both resins (CPF/PF) were mixed in different proportions, and their thermal and mechanical properties were then established. A full miscibility of the two resins was observed with the formation of a single-phase system.

METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment lengt

METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on DNA isolated from 135 volunteers.

RESULTS: The number of PPMS patients without the epsilon 2 allele was found to be remarkably high, whilst the epsilon 2 allele was overrepresented in the RRMS group. A markedly high frequency of the epsilon 4 allele was found LOXO-101 ic50 in the PPMS group and a very low frequency in the HC group. With regards to the clinical parameters, significant differences were observed between the RRMS and PPMS groups.

Differences were also detected regarding the EDSS and MSSS scores when the patients were grouped by the presence or absence of the epsilon 2 allele. All of the observed differences in the clinical parameters disappeared when the patients were further stratified by the type of MS.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the presence of the epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 alleles may play a role in the development of the disease. However, if any type of the disease has already selleck compound developed the alleles show no association with the clinical parameters.”
“MIKC-type MADS domain proteins are key regulators of flower development in angiosperms. B-sister genes constitute a clade with a close relationship to class B floral homeotic genes, and

have been conserved for more than 300 million years. The loss-of-function phenotype of the A. thaliana B-sister gene ABS is mild: mutants show reduced seed coloration and defects in endothelium development. This study focuses on GORDITA (GOA, formerly known as AGL63), the most closely related paralog of ABS in A. thaliana, which is thought to act redundantly with ABS. Phylogenetic trees reveal that the duplication leading to ABS and GOA occurred during diversification of the Brassicaceae, and further analyses selleck inhibitor show that GOA has evolved under relaxed selection pressure. The knockdown phenotype of GOA suggests a role for this gene in fruit longitudinal growth, while over-expression of GOA results in disorganized floral structure

and addition of carpel-like features to sepals. Given the phylogeny and function of other B-sister genes, our data suggest that GOA has evolved a new function as compared to ABS. Protein analysis reveals that the GOA-specific ‘deviant’ domain is required for protein dimerization, in contrast to other MIKC-type proteins that require the K domain for dimerization. Moreover, no shared protein interaction partners for ABS and GOA could be identified. Our experiments indicate that modification of a protein domain and a shift in expression pattern can lead to a novel gene function in a relatively short time, and highlight the molecular mechanism by which neofunctionalization following gene duplication can be achieved.

In the past fifteen years, one of signaling pathways that has bee

In the past fifteen years, one of signaling pathways that has been best characterized in heart development in both invertebrates and vertebrates is the Wg/Wnt signaling pathways. Since our discovery of the Wg signaling required for the early heart development in Drosophila, the past fifteen

years have witnessed tremendous progress in the understanding of specific Wnt signaling pathways in vertebrate cardiogenesis. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of Wg signaling transduction in Drosophila heart development, which will benefit our understanding of vertebrate cardiogenesis and human congenital malformations.”
“Purpose: To determine if operator variability, prior vertebroplasty experience, or acquired vertebroplasty experience affects clinical outcomes.

Materials and Methods: Informed consent was obtained from all patients selleck chemicals llc and all data were handled in a manner consistent with institutional review board guidelines and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability AZD8186 nmr Act. Outcomes from 841 vertebroplasties, sorted by operator, were studied; two operators had previous vertebroplasty experience and five were neurointerventionalists

who were initially new to the procedure. Objective (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RDQ] and analog pain scales) and subjective (mobility, narcotic use) scores were monitored before and after vertebroplasty at specified intervals following treatment. Perioperative cement volume utilization, complications, and number of treated levels were recorded. Random-effects BMS-777607 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor and repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to assess operator differences and variability in clinical outcomes while generalized linear mixed-model regression analyses were used to track changes in clinical outcomes over time.

Results: All operators provided similar average durable clinical improvements in postoperative pain and disability with nonsignificant interoperator

variability. However, generalized linear model regression suggests that four of five initially novice operators showed significant changes in several procedural measures and clinical outcomes over the study timeframe, including cement volume utilization (reduction of 3.64 to 4.63 cm(3)), 1 week RDQ score (reduction of 4.79 to 8.62 points) and postoperative rest pain (reduction of 1.18 to 2.03 points).

Conclusion: Changes over time in measured outcomes suggest the presence of a training effect among novice operators. Cement volume utilization and immediate postprocedural pain decrease with experience but long-term clinical outcomes are insensitive to operator experience. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“Background and aims: Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been described as one of the major enzymes producing free radicals in blood.

All but one patient with an implanted PNS system had >= 50% pa

All but one patient with an implanted PNS system had >= 50% pain relief at last follow-up and 3/7 (43%) permanent systems https://www.selleckchem.com/products/LDE225(NVP-LDE225).html were associated with >= 80% relief.

Loss of paresthesia required revision to dual-lead systems in upper extremity radial nerve PNS. Infection led to explant in one case.

Conclusions. In a small series of patients, a minimally invasive, ultrasound-assisted technique for PNS trial, and permanent PNS implantation proved feasible. Patients without adequate analgesia during neurostimulation trial avoided surgical incision and those undergoing permanent implantation were not subjected to the potential morbidity associated with nerve dissection.”
“Objective: To evaluate the long-term adverse cochlear implant (CI) outcomes resulting in revision surgery including CI reimplantation (CIR).

Patients: Pediatric and adult patients requiring revision procedures after CI placement.

Intervention(s): Revision surgery on cochlear implant patients.

Main Outcome Measures: Device type, length of total device follow-up, time to device failure, cause for failure, peak pre-CIR and post-CIR audiometric performance, rate of surgical site complications, and operative findings.

Results: A total of 317 patients, receiving

439 CIs between January 2000 and April 2012, met inclusion criteria for this series. For the patients implanted at our institution, the revision surgery rate was 4.1%, with a CIR rate of 3.0%. The CIR rates among the pediatric and adult populations were 5.0% and GW4869 purchase 1.3%, respectively (p = 0.0336). The rate of revision procedures because of failed fixation or device extrusion was 0.9%. Device failure was experienced in 8 patients in our series, with 75% occurring with the CI24R (CS) device.

Conclusion: All reimplanted patients with available data had good audiometric outcomes, with the exception of those reimplanted for soft failure who had poor immediate auditory function. Using the manufacturers’ recommended surgical technique, including drilling a bony recess with suture fixation, very low surgical

revision rates were achieved. Pediatric Selleck YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 patients experienced significantly higher complications requiring CIR. All hard failures in this series occurred in the pediatric group and in a single device. Continued follow-up will be needed to determine if additional devices will succumb to this mode of failure.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Oraqix (R) during scaling and root planing (SRP) in comparison with 20% benzocaine and placebo.

Study Design: 15 patients requiring 4 sessions of SRP were enrolled. For each patient, Oraqix (R), Hurricaine (R), vaseline or no anesthetic product were randomly assigned each to a quadrant. Treatment pain was evaluated on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and on a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS).

001) and the 12-month post-index ($21,071 versus $849; P< 001)

001) and the 12-month post-index ($21,071 versus $849; P<.001) periods, primarily attributable to outpatient and pharmacy costs. For the patients with CPP, annual health care costs increased by $10,103 after diagnosis. On average, annual CPP-related costs were $10,605. Monthly total health care costs for the patients with CPP increased sharply during the first month after diagnosis and remained high throughout

the post-index period.

Conclusion: In this study, health care resource use and costs among patients with CPP were substantial before and after the initial diagnosis of CPP. (Endocr Pract. 2012;18:519-528)”
“Background: Women with breast or cervical cancer abnormalities can experience barriers to timely follow-up care, resulting in delays in cancer diagnosis. Patient navigation programs that identify and remove barriers to ensure timely receipt of

care are proliferating nationally. The study CCI-779 nmr used a systematic framework to describe barriers, including differences between African American and Latina women; to determine recurrence of barriers; and to examine factors associated with barriers to follow-up care.

Methods: Data originated from 250 women in the intervention arm of the Chicago Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP). The women had abnormal cancer screening findings and navigator encounters. Women were recruited from check details a community health center and a publicly owned medical center. After describing proportions of African American and Latina women experiencing particular barriers, logistic regression was used to explore associations selleck inhibitor between patient characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, and type of barriers.

Results: The most frequent barriers occurred at the intrapersonal level (e. g., insurance issues and fear), while institutional-level barriers such as system problems with scheduling care were

the most commonly recurring over time (29%). The majority of barriers (58%) were reported in the first navigator encounter. Latinas (81%) reported barriers more often than African American women (19%). Differences in race/ethnicity and employment status were associated with types of barriers. Compared to African American women, Latinas were more likely to report an intrapersonal level barrier. Unemployed women were more likely to report an institutional level barrier.

Conclusion: In a sample of highly vulnerable women, there is no single characteristic (e. g., uninsured) that predicts what kinds of barriers a woman is likely to have. Nevertheless, navigators appear able to easily resolve intrapersonal-level barriers, but ongoing navigation is needed to address system-level barriers. Patient navigation programs can adopt the PNRP barriers framework to assist their efforts in assuring timely follow-up care.

Here it is suggested that pathways attain novel compartmentation

Here it is suggested that pathways attain novel compartmentation variants via a ‘minor mistargeting’ mechanism. If protein targeting in eukaryotic cells possesses Fludarabine order enough imperfection such that small amounts of entire pathways continuously enter novel compartments, selectable units of biochemical function would exist in new compartments, and the genes could become selected. Dual-targeting of proteins is indeed very common within eukaryotic cells, suggesting that targeting variation required for this minor mistargeting mechanism to operate exists in nature.”
“A novel superabsorbent nanocomposite based on hydrolyzed collagen was synthesized by simultaneously graft copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane

sulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylamide (AAm). Sodium montmorilonite (Na-MMt) was used as clay. Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as crosslinker and initiator, selleck respectively. The effect of reaction variables such as nanoclay content, MBA and APS concentrations as well as the AMPS/AAm weight ratio on the water absorbency of nanocomposites was investigated. Although

the water absorbency was decreased by increasing of MBA concentration, an optimum swelling capacity was achieved for clay, APS, and AMPS/AAm variables. The structure of nanocomposite was identified using FTIR spectroscopy, XRD patterns, and scanning electron microscopy graphs. The effect of swelling media comprising various dissolved salts and different pHs was studied. Also, water retention capacity was studied, and the results showed that inclusion of Na-MMt nanoclay causes an increase in water retention under heating. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1170-1179, 2011″
“In economic evaluation, mathematical models have a central role as a way of integrating all the relevant information about a disease and health interventions, in order to estimate costs and consequences over an extended time horizon. Models are based on scientific knowledge of disease (which is likely to change over

time), simplifying assumptions Selleckchem S63845 and input parameters with different levels of uncertainty; therefore, it is sensible to explore the consistency of model predictions with observational data. Calibration is a useful tool for estimating uncertain parameters, as well as more accurately defining model uncertainty (particularly with respect to the representation of correlations between parameters). Calibration involves the comparison of model outputs (e.g. disease prevalence rates) with empirical data, leading to the identification of model parameter values that achieve a good fit.

This article provides guidance on the theoretical underpinnings of different calibration methods. The calibration process is divided into seven steps and different potential methods at each step are discussed, focusing on the particular features of disease models in economic evaluation.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2087-2092,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2087-2092, 2009″
“The association between cardiovascular events and a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level has been clearly established by numerous clinical DAPT order trials. Moreover, reducing the LDL-cholesterol level using statins

has been shown to be highly effective in both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, despite statin treatment, the residual cardiovascular risk remains high and a large number of cardiovascular events still occur. On the other hand, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that there is an inverse association between the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and cardiovascular risk. The most recent observations indicate that increasing the HDL-cholesterol level confers an additional benefit to reducing the LDL-cholesterol level with statins. Together, these findings justify turning our attention to HDL-cholesterol to provide a novel additional strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk. This review article describes: firstly, epidemiological studies that endorse HDL cholesterol as a therapeutic target; secondly, the different alternative treatments available for increasing the HDL-cholesterol

level; and, finally, the benefits associated with such an increase.”
“Background and Objectives. Matrix metalloproteinases degrade extracellular membrane and also release bioactive fragments and growth factors, thus influencing fundamental biological JQ1 order and pathological processes. Epilysin (MMP-28) differs from most other MMPs as it is expressed in a number of normal tissues, suggestive of functions in tissue homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate and compare the mRNA expression of epilysin (MMP-28) in gingival tissues of healthy patients and of patients affected by chronic or aggressive periodontitis. Methods. A total of 60 subjects, 20 periodontally

healthy subjects, 20 with chronic periodontitis, and 20 with aggressive periodontitis, were included in this study. Periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level. mRNA expression of MMP-28 was determined Selleckchem IWR-1-endo by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in gingival tissue samples collected. Results. Relative quantification of mRNA expression of MMP-28 was highest in healthy tissues (RQ = 0.97) when compared to subjects with chronic periodontitis (RQ = 0.37) and aggressive periodontitis (RQ = 0.23), but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. mRNA expression of MMP-28 was highest in healthy tissues when compared to diseased periodontal tissues suggesting that MMP-28 could act as a biomarker for periodontal health.

When evaluated for inhibition of the carbachol-induced

When evaluated for inhibition of the carbachol-induced

Repotrectinib mw contraction of rat urinary bladder, 5-HMT MS showed a much longer and more potent effect than tolterodine tablets. The mean urination time of the rats in the 5-HMT MS group was significantly decreased (p<0.05 or p<0.01) to less than 2 weeks.”
“Purpose of review

Regulatory T cells (Treg) maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmune disease. This review summarizes the recent advances in Treg knowledge relevant to type 1 diabetes, focusing on Treg signature, antigen specificity and development and function in the face of inflammation.

Recent findings

Thymus-derived natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) programmed by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and peripheral-induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) have largely nonoverlapping T-cell receptor repertoires to self-antigens and jointly contribute to immune homeostasis. Initial reports Fedratinib datasheet that CD4(+)CD25(+) (FOXP3(+)) Treg were impaired in frequency or function in type 1 diabetes have not been confirmed. The Treg-specific demethylated region

in the FOXP3 locus in nTreg is, in contrast, methylated in iTreg and conventional T cells (Tconv) and is the only feature that reliably distinguishes activated human nTreg and Tconv. Inflammatory cytokines regulate extrathymic differentiation of nTreg but can also reprogram nTreg into Th17 or Th1 effectors and prevent the differentiation of iTreg.

Summary

The Etomoxir cost methylation status of the FOXP3 locus provides a means to re-examine Treg in autoimmune disease. nTreg and iTreg recognize different self-antigens. Shaping of Treg by the cytokine milieu has implications for the application of Treg cell-based immune therapies.”
“Introduction: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is considered the gold standard imaging technique for surveillance following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Limitations of CIA include cost, risk of contrast nephropathy and radiation exposure.

A modified surveillance protocol involving annual duplex ultrasound (DUS) and abdominal radiography (AXR) was introduced, with CTA performed only if abnormalities were identified or DUS was undiagnostic.

Methods: Prospective records were maintained on patients undergoing infra-renal EVAR at a UK, tertiary referral centre. All patients enrolled with at least one-year follow-up were reviewed. Primary outcomes identified were aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related complications. Secondary outcomes included number of CTAs avoided and cost.

Results: Median follow-up was 36 months (range 12-57) for 194 patients. The total number of sets of surveillance imaging was 412 of which 70 (17%) required CTA. Abnormalities were found in 30 patients, 18 confirmed by CTA. Eleven patients required secondary intervention, three initially identified by AXR, three by DUS, three by both DUS and AXR, and two by CIA following undiagnostic DUS.

P uptake by denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms [DPAOs)

P uptake by denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms [DPAOs) accounted for 41 – 52% of the total uptake in the MBR.

CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the intermediate clarifier assisted chemical oxygen demand (COD), N, and P removal. With respect to the fate of P, the intermediate clarifier functioned as an extended anaerobic zone when the HRT of the

preceding anaerobic zone was insufficient for P release, and as a pre-anoxic zone when the anaerobic HRT was adequate for P release. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal AZD6738 chemical structure bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate specificities of salivary proteases in periodontal health and disease are poorly characterised, we probed these activities using several relevant substrates: (i) gelatin and collagen type IV; (ii) the Arg/Lys-rich human salivary substrate histatin-5; and (iii) a Lapatinib histatin-derived synthetic analog benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Gly-Tyr-Arg-methyl cumaryl amide (Z-RGYR-MCA). Substrate degradation was assessed in gel (zymography) and in solution. Whole saliva supernatant enzyme activities directed at gelatin, quantified from the 42 kDa, 92 kDa and 130 kDa bands in the zymograms,

were 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0-fold higher, respectively, in the periodontal patient group (P<0.01), consistent with enhanced activities observed towards collagen type IV. On the other hand, histatin 5 degraded equally fast in healthy and periodontal patients’ whole saliva supernatant samples (P>0.10). Likewise, the hydrolysis rates of the Z-RGYR-MCA substrate were the same in the healthy and periodontal patient groups (P>0.10). In conclusion, gelatinolytic/collagenolytic activities but not trypsin-like activities Danusertib Cell Cycle inhibitor in human saliva differentiate health from periodontal disease and may thus provide

an adjuvant to diagnosis for monitoring disease activity.”
“Objective: Description and evaluation of a newly developed artificial temporal bone (TB) model suitable for surgical training for cochlear implantation.

Subject: Based on micro-computed tomographic images, a TB model was designed with material properties as similar to bone as possible. The bony anatomic details were rebuilt as closely as possible with preservation of the endocochlear lumen.

Intervention: The TB model was compared with a human cadaveric TB by 8 otologists experienced in cochlear implantation.

Main Outcome Measure: The otologists were asked to respond to a semiquantitative questionnaire with scales from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Anatomic details were compared macroscopically and microscopically. The surgical steps of mastoidectomy, posterior tympanotomy, cochleostomy, and insertion of a cochlear electrode were assessed.

Researchers have recently found that SCA type 11 (SCA11) is assoc

Researchers have recently found that SCA type 11 (SCA11) is associated with mutations in the TTBK2 gene. In our previous work, we performed mutation detection in SCA1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 17 and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene in Chinese SCA patients, but the genes responsible for approximately 40% of our patients have not yet been identified. To investigate the frequency of SCA11 in Chinese SCA patients, we

examined the TTBK2 HSP990 research buy gene in 68 unrelated probands diagnosed with dominantly inherited ataxia using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography method. All analyzed samples displayed the normal elution profile, which denoted that no disease-related mutation was identified. We provided the evidence that SCA11 is a rare form of ataxia in China.”
“In contrast to the bulk of published nanocomposite studies, in this study we investigated the mechanical properties of alumina/epoxy nanocomposites manufactured with nanofillers having a fiber or whisker morphology. The article describes how ultrasonic dispersion and in situ polymerization were used to incorporate these 2-4 nm diameter fibers (with aspect ratios of 25-50) into a two-part epoxy AC220 resin (Epon 826/Epicure 9551). The use of untreated and surface-modified nanoparticles is contrasted, and improvements in both the tensile strength and modulus were observed at low filler loadings.

Microstructural characterization of the nanocomposites via multiscale digital image analysis was used to interpret the mechanical properties and was found to be useful for direct comparison with other nanocomposites. In addition, superior performance click here was demonstrated through comparisons with numerous nanocomposites with nanoparticle reinforcements ranging from carbon nanofibers to spherical alumina particles. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1459-1468, 2011″
“GaP nanowire, a potential material for new devices where optical and electronic

applications can be merged, suffers some limitations because it presents indirect band gap. Using first principles calculations we demonstrate that, due to confinement effects, the band gap not only is enlarged when in a nanowire form, but can be transformed to a direct band gap semiconductor nanowire, just by reducing the nanowire diameter to few nanometers. This transition to a direct band gap is obtained for (111) oriented GaP nanowires but not for [110] oriented nanowires. The effects of surface states which can alter the band gap have been studied with hydrogen saturation and an oxide cap layer on the surface of the GaP nanowire. The results show that, while the hydrogen is a perfect passivator, the GaP/Ga(2)O(3) heterojunction presents a small conduction band offset but keeps direct band gap (111) oriented GaP nanowires. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.