Anaesthesia and CZP both terminated GCSE more effectively than NC

Anaesthesia and CZP both terminated GCSE more effectively than NCSE and EPC. Concerning the course of the different kinds of SE the following results were obtained:

13 patients died during hospital treatment. Treatment in NCSE and EPC started significantly later than in GCSE. There was no significant difference in mortality between the types of SE. However the frequency of refractory courses differed between the types of SE. At the time of SE termination without the administration of anaesthesia a combination therapy using 2 or more AEDs was established MK-2206 clinical trial in most episodes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective To investigate invivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to diagnose hidden corneal foreign bodies. Methods Male Kunming mice (n=25; 12 weeks old) were anaesthetized prior to the insertion of five different materials (spiny wood, rusty iron, sharp stone, sharp glass fragment and human hair fragment) into the cornea by different traumatic processes. A separate mouse was used for each

corneal foreign body. The corneas of the mice were scanned 24h later by a laser scanning IVCM selleck inhibitor to establish the characteristics (shape, reflectivity and depth in the cornea) of each foreign body. These findings were used to help screen and identify corneal foreign bodies in patients. Corneal smears and scraping cultures were performed in cases of probable corneal infection. Results Animal models click here for the five different foreign particles were established successfully, with each showing distinctive characteristics. These animal results were used to

diagnose 41 patients with suspected corneal foreign bodies who were negative by slit lamp examination, but positive by IVCM (observational case series). The most prevalent type of hidden foreign body was plant material (51.2%), followed by metal (29.3%). Ten patients with corneal foreign bodies developed fungal keratitis, found using IVCM. Conclusions Laser IVCM is an effective and reliable tool for the diagnosis of hidden corneal foreign bodies.”
“Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P smaller than 0.

Based on the data obtained

Based on the data obtained Autophagy inhibitor library in this study, it could be concluded that the early accumulation of H(2)O(2) during HS signals the increase in GSH content, which in turn protects rice seedlings from oxidative damage caused by Cd.”
“Patients and methods: In a prospective double-blind randomized trial, 36 neurosurgical patients were treated with clonidine or placebo in combination with standard fentanyl anaesthetic drugs. The rebreathing test described by Read and Leigh was

used to assess the CO(2)-mediated central stimulation of breathing in both groups.\n\nResults: The rebreathing test (measuring times/P0: day before operation; P1 and P2: P1=120 min, P2=180 min after starting the operation; duration of operation (empty set) PFTα 63 min) failed to reveal any statistical differences (percentage change in the regression line) between the treatment groups in the responsiveness of the central nervous system to increased CO(2) level (placebo group: 81.5%, clonidine group: 81.2%).\n\nConclusion: The use of clonidine in combination with fentanyl (at the concentrations tested) in general anaesthesia is not associated with prolonged suppression of the respiratory centre.”
“Objective: Cortical auditory evoked potentials, including

mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a to pure tones, harmonic complexes, and speech syllables, were examined across groups of trained musicians and nonmusicians. Because of the extensive formal and informal

auditory training received by musicians throughout their lifespan, it was predicted that these electrophysiological indicators of preattentive pitch discrimination and involuntary AZD1208 cell line attention change would distinguish musicians from nonmusicians and provide insight regarding the influence of auditory training and experience on central auditory function.\n\nDesign: A total of 102 (67 trained musicians, 35 nonmusicians) right-handed young women with normal hearing participated in three auditory stimulus conditions: pure tones (25 musicians/15 nonmusicians), harmonic tones (42 musicians/20 nonmusicians), and speech syllables (26 musicians/15 nonmusicians). Pure tone and harmonic tone stimuli were presented in multideviant oddball paradigms designed to elicit MMN and P3a. Each paradigm included one standard and two infrequently occurring deviants. For the pure tone condition, the standard pure tone was 1000 Hz, and the two deviant tones differed in frequency from the standard by either 1.5% (1015 Hz) or 6% (1060 Hz). The harmonic tone complexes were digitally created and contained a fundamental frequency (F0) and three harmonics. The amplitude of each harmonic was divided by its harmonic number to create a natural amplitude contour in the frequency spectrum. The standard tone was G4 (F0 = 392 Hz), and the two deviant tones differed in fundamental frequency from the standard by 1.5% (F0 = 386 Hz) or 6% (F0 = 370 Hz).

The pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis is

The pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis is selleck chemical poorly understood, even if chronic ischemia with consequent arteriolosclerosis probably due to endothelial dysfunction has been suggested. To date, treatment focuses only on prevention of lesion formation and progression by aggressive control of risk factors, beginning at an early age and continuing throughout life.\n\nL-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, is a precursor of NO in the reaction catalyzed by endothelial nitric oxide synthase and, it has been recently found to importantly influence endothelial function. Arginine supplementation has been demonstrated to be safe and effective therapy for many health conditions, particularly vascular diseases such as intermittent

claudication, angina pectoris, erectile dysfunction and MELAS.\n\nThus we hypothesize that, since a lack of endothelium-derived NO may be responsible for several features of LA, long-term administration of high oral doses of L-Arg may slow LA progression and the associated functional impairment. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are

Aurora Kinase inhibitor the cleanest, most efficient, and cost-effective option for direct conversion to electricity of a wide variety of fuels. While significant progress has been made in anode materials with enhanced tolerance to coking and contaminant poisoning, cathodic polarization still contributes considerably to energy loss, more so at lower operating temperatures. Here we report a synergistic effect of co-doping in a cation-ordered double-perovskite material, PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta, which has created pore channels that dramatically enhance find more oxygen ion diffusion and surface oxygen exchange while maintaining excellent compatibility and stability under operating conditions. Test cells based on these cathode materials demonstrate peak power densities similar to 2.2 W cm(-2) at 600

degrees C, representing an important step toward commercially viable SOFC technologies.”
“Interactions of the ESCRT complexes are critical for endosomal trafficking. We identify two domains with potential significance for this process. The MABP domain present in metazoan ESCRT-I/MVB12 subunits, Crag, a regulator of protein sorting, and bacterial pore-forming proteins might mediate novel membrane interactions in trafficking. The UBAP1-MVB12-associated UMA domain found in MVB12 and UBAP1 defines a novel adaptor that might recruit diverse targets to ESCRT-I.”
“Obesity-associated severe asthma is a distinct phenotype characterised by resistance to standard asthma therapies. Bariatric surgery appears to be a viable alternative for those who have failed trials of traditional weight loss methods. However, anaesthetic and surgical risks are potential barriers. We describe three patients with treatment-resistant obesity-associated severe asthma who underwent bariatric surgery without complications due to the multidisciplinary perioperative planning and care involved in these complex cases.

0, 5 0 and 10 mu M IBA Four types of potting media comprising of

0, 5.0 and 10 mu M IBA. Four types of potting media comprising of sand, peat, sand + top soil + goat dung (3: 2: 1 v/v) and top soil + sand (1: 1 v/v) were evaluated during acclimatization of the plantlets. Prolific shoot regeneration from scalps was obtained on MS medium containing 2.5 mu M BAP, at 9.61 and 40.6 shoots per explant after 4 and 8 weeks of culture, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest mean shoot height of 2.19 cm was attained on MS medium with 1.0 mu M CP-456773 research buy BAP after 8 weeks of culture. Full-strength

MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mu M IBA produced the highest mean number of roots per explant at 15.08, while the highest mean root length of 11.07 cm was obtained on hormone-free half strength MS medium at week 4 of culture. The highest plant survivability of 77.5% was achieved in potting medium consisting of top soil + sand + goat dung after 6 weeks of acclimatization. The plants were morphologically normal with vigorous stems and broad green leaves.”
“Four new 1.2.4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dyes were synthesized via condensation of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with azo-coupled o-vanillin precursors. The prepared dyes were characterized by IR. UV-vis and H-1 NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analyses. Thermal properties of the prepared dyes were examined

by thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that the framework of the dyes was stable up SRT2104 manufacturer to 225 degrees C. Also, the influence of various factors including time and mixed DMSO/EtOH solution on UV-vis spectra of the dyes were investigated. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor rights reserved.”
“Overexpression of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the bloodbrain

barrier (BBB) is thought to be involved in pharmacoresistance in epilepsy by extruding antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from their target site. To explore this hypothesis, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed with the Pgp substrateverapamil (VPM) in animal models before and after status epilepticus (SE) and in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy controls. In addition to baseline scans, a second VPM-PET scan was performed after administration of the Pgp inhibitor tariquidar (TQD), showing that VPM uptake at baseline and its increase after Pgp inhibition are reduced in animals following SE compared to baseline, and in refractory TLE relative to healthy controls. In animal models, brain regions with increased Pgp expression (cerebellum, thalamus, and hippocampus) showed reduced influx rate constants from blood to brain, K-1, of the radiolabeled Pgp substrate relative to control animals. In human studies, preliminary findings are lower K-1 values in refractory compared to seizure-free patients and attenuated increase of K-1 for temporal lobe regions in patients with TLE compared to healthy controls.

Underlying the new approach is the experimentally proven fact of

Underlying the new approach is the experimentally proven fact of the equality of two kinds of output device currents. The first originated from the shunted Hall voltage by ammeter and the second one is generated by external voltage supply fed between the output sensor terminals without magnetic field whose values match the Hall voltage. The method’s application results in equal magnetosensitivity of a calibrated series of samples achieved by electrical means through www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-98059.html tuning the individual biasing current of the transducer only.”
“A bench-scale test for the separation of strontium and trivalent lanthanides/actinides,

using Nd3+ as a surrogate, from a simulated acidic high level liquid waste (HLLW) has been performed with a set of 10-mm centrifugal contactors using N,N,N’N'-tetra-isobutyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TiBOGA) as extractant. The test shows that Sr2+ and Nd3+ can be co-extracted from the HLLW and then separated from each other by step stripping. The results indicate that 99.99% of Sr2+ and Nd3+ can be removed from the HLLW, and less than 0.01% of Nd3+ remains in Sr2+ product stream and 0.1% of Sr2+ in Nd3+ stream. In HNO3 solutions -0.2 M TiBOGA in selleck compound 40% octanol/kerosene system the mass transfer stage efficiencies of HNO3

and Sr2+ have also been studied on a single-stage 10-mm centrifugal contactor.”
“This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) combined with grafting of artificial dermis and autologous epidermis in the repair of refractory wounds. Patients with refractory wounds underwent debridement. Then the VAC device was used to culture wound granulation tissue. After the wound granulation tissue began to grow, artificial dermis was grafted on the wounds with VAC treatment. Then autologous epidermis was grafted on the artificial dermis to repair the wounds after survival of the artificial epidermis. The study mainly HSP990 observed length of the hospital stay, survival

of the artificial dermis, time required for culture of the granulation tissue using VAC before grafting of the artificial dermis, survival time of the artificial dermis, survival conditions of the autologous epidermis, influence on functions of a healed wound at a functional part, healing conditions of donor sites, and recurrence conditions of the wounds. Healing was successful for 22 patients (95.7%), but treatment failed for 1 child. The 22 patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months. According to follow-up findings, the skin grafts had good color and a soft texture. They were wear resistant and posed no influence on function. The appearance of the final results was the same as that of the full-thickness skin graft. Mild or no pigmentation and no scar formation occurred at the donor sites, and the wounds did not recur.


“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter


“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter in the chemistry of highly symmetric molecules. Fullerene-like

metal dusters, characterized by (multi)shell-like structures, are one rapidly developing class of molecules that share this shape. In addition to creating aesthetically pleasing molecular Structures, the ordered arrangement of metal atoms within such frameworks provides the opportunity to develop materials with properties not readily achieved in corresponding mononuclear or lower-nuclearity complexes.\n\nIn this Account, we survey the great variety of fullerene-like Sapitinib solubility dmso metal-containing clusters with an emphasis on their synthetic and structural chemistry, a first step in the discussion of this fascinating field of cluster chemistry. We group the compounds of interest into three categories based on the atomic composition of the cluster core: those with formal metal-metal bonding, those characterized by ligand participation, and those supported by polyoxometalate building blocks. The number of clusters in the first group, containing metal-metal

bonds, is relatively small. However, because of the unique and complex bonding scenarios observed for some of these species, these metalloid clusters present a number of research questions with significant ramifications. Because these cores contain molecular clusters of PD173074 Angiogenesis inhibitor precious metals at the nanoscale, they offer an opportunity to study chemical properties at size ranges from the molecular to nanoscale and to gain insights into the electronic structures and properties of nanomaterials of similar chemical compositions.\n\nClusters of the second type, whose core structures are facilitated by ligand participation, could aid in the development of functional materials. Of particular interest are the magnetic clusters containing both transition and lanthanide elements. A series of such heterometallic clusters that we prepared demonstrates diverse

magnetic properties including antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Considering the diversity of their composition, their distinct electronic structures, and the disparate coordination behaviors of the different metal elements, these materials suggest abundant opportunities for designing multifunctional materials with 3-MA in vivo varied structures.\n\nThe third type of dusters that we discuss are based on polyoxometalates, in particular those containing pentagonal units. However, unlike in fullerene chemistry, which does not allow the use of discrete pentagonal building blocks, the metal oxide-based pentagonal units can be used as fundamental building blocks for constructing various Keplerate structures. These structures also have a variety of functions, including intriguing magnetic properties in some cases. Coupled with different linking groups, such pentagonal units can be used for the assembly of a large number of spherical molecules whose properties can be tuned and optimized.

Materials and Methods Pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart’s

\n\nMaterials and Methods Pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart’s disease scheduled for cordocentesis at 18 to 22 weeks were recruited into the study. Maternal serum-free beta-hCG, PAPP-A, and AFP concentrations were measured before cordocentesis, and the final fetal diagnosis

of Hb Bart disease was based on fetal Hb typing using high-performance liquid chromatography.\n\nResults Of 57 recruited pregnancies, 11 had fetal Hb Bart’s disease and 46 were unaffected. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) concentrations were significantly higher in women with fetal Hb Bart’s disease than those with unaffected fetuses (median 99.53 vs 50.83, P < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.543 and 0.777, respectively).\n\nConclusion Vactosertib cost Second-trimester MSAFP may be clinically a useful screening test for fetal Hb Bart’s disease among Birinapant purchase pregnancies at risk. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are common abnormalities in elderly men. It is considered that epithelial stem cells are involved

in the etiology and development of both diseases. To distinguish aberrant from normal cells, the knowledge about primary epithelial stem/progenitor cells (ES/P) is essential. The aim of this study was to examine the role of surface markers to distinguish between different subsets of prostate basal epithelium.\n\nMETHODS. The expression pattern of prostate tissue single cell suspensions was analyzed by flow cytometry using different markers. Sorted cell populations were examined for their clonogenic capacity and the resulted colonies were analyzed with flow cytometry, Western blot, and qPCR for stem cell, basal, and luminal epithelium markers. Additionally, the histological localization of the examined markers was determined using immunofluorescence.\n\nRESULTS.

Using the combination of CD49f, Trop-2, and surface CD24, basal cell subsets with distinct differentiation capacities were dissected (CD49f(+)Trop-2(+)CD24(-) Sapanisertib mouse and CD49f(+)Trop-2(+)CD24(+)). Although cells from the two subsets gave rise to similar basal colonies, qPCR of primary tissue revealed that higher levels of basal marker expression were detected in the CD49f(+)Trop-2(+)CD24(-) subset. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a prominent expression of CD24 by luminal and basal cells.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Subsets with distinct differentiation capacities within the basal epithelium (CD49f(+)Trop-2(+)CD24(-) and CD49f(+)Trop-2(+)CD24(+)) can be distinguished in human prostate.

Results

showed different mean particle sizes depending on

Results

showed different mean particle sizes depending on the type of lipid used in the disperse phase. Particle sizes for the 3 lipids were: stearic acid (SL: 195 +/- 2.5 nm; SL+O: 138 +/- 6.0 nm); candelilla wax (SL: 178 +/- 1.7 nm; SL+O: 144 +/- 0.6 nm); carnauba wax (SL: 303 +/- 1.5 nm; SL+O: 295 +/- 5.0 nm). TEM results gave an insight into the practical morphology, showing plate-like and needle-like structures. DSC investigations also revealed that SL dispersions melted and crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk. This decrease can be explained by the small particle sizes of the dispersion, the high-specific surface find more area, and the presence of a surfactant.”
“Just as in the Eukarya and the Bacteria, members of the Archaea need to export proteins beyond the cell membrane. This would be required to fulfill a variety of essential functions

such as nutrient acquisition and biotransformations, maintenance of extracellular structures and more. Apart from the Eukarya and the Bacteria however, members of the Archaea share a number of unique characteristics. Does this uniqueness extend to the protein secretion system? It was the objective of this study to answer selleckchem this question. To overcome the Limited experimental information on secreted proteins in Archaea, this study was carried out by subjecting the available archaeal genomes, which represent halophiles, thermophiles, and extreme thermophiles, to bioinformatics analysis. Specifically, to examine the properties of the secretomes of the Archaea using the ExProt program. A total of 24 genomes were analyzed. Secretomes were found to fail in the range of 6% of total ORFs (Methanopyrus kandleri) to 19% (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1). Methanosarcina acetivorans has the highest fraction of lipoproteins (at 89) and the lowest (at 1) were members of the Thermoplasma, Pyrobaculum aerophilum, and Nanoarchaeum equitans.

Based on the Tat consensus sequence, contribution PDGFR inhibitor of these secreted proteins to the secretomes were negligible, making up 8 proteins out of a total of 7105 predicted exported proteins. Amino acid composition, an attribute of signal peptides not used as a selection criteria by ExProt, of predicted archaeal signal peptides show that in the haloarchaea secretomes, the frequency of the amino acid Lys is much lower than that seen in bacterial. signal peptides, but is compensated for by a higher frequency of Arg. It also showed that higher frequencies for Thr, Val, and Gly contribute to the hydrophobic character in haloarchaeal. signal peptides, unlike bacterial signal, peptides in which the hydrophobic character is dominated by Leu and Ile. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, a numerical solution of flow and heat transfer in micropolar fluid outside a stretching permeable cylinder with thermal stratification and suction/injection effects.

(C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS All rights reserved “
“Prey an

(C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Prey animals often need to learn the identity of unknown predators, and not surprisingly, nearby conspecifics provide a rich source of information about both the identity and risk level posed by unknown predators. Individuals that learn from watching conspecifics that show a weak response to a predator often learn that the predator

is a mild threat, while those that observe conspecifics that show a strong response to the predator, learn that the predator is a high-level threat. This means that any factor that influences the intensity of the antipredator response of the tutor can potentially Alvocidib influence the efficacy of information transfer to the observer. We know that food resources influence the activity levels of prey, making them more or less conspicuous to nearby conspecifics. We also know that prey often ignore risk if they have restricted access to food resources. This means that food resources have the potential

to dramatically change social learning dynamics. In the present study, we found that tadpoles fed restricted diets www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-06463922.html had much higher activity levels than those fed ad libitum food resources. Their high activity made them more conspicuous to nearby conspecifics, causing them to be much more efficient as tutors. Our work highlights the dynamic nature of social learning, as information transfer is likely to change considerably from place to place and year to year as resources change through space and time. (C) 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of one-view digital breast tomosynthesis versus two-view full-field digital mammography (FFDM) alone, and versus a combined reading of both

modalities.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS. The datasets of one-view digital breast tomosynthesis and two-view FFDM of abnormal mammograms in 144 consecutive women admitted for diagnostic workup with clinical signs and symptoms (n = 78) or recalled from screening (n = 66) were read alone and in a combined setting. The malignant or benign nature of the lesions was established by histologic analysis of biopsied lesions or by 12-16-month follow-up.\n\nRESULTS. BTK inhibitor screening library Eighty-six of the 144 patients were found to have breast cancer. The BI-RADS categories for one-view digital breast tomosynthesis were significantly better than those for two-view FFDM (p < 0.001) and were equal to those of the combined reading in both women admitted for diagnostic workup and women recalled from screening. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of digital breast tomosynthesis were superior to those of FFDM in fatty and dense breasts overall and in women admitted for diagnostic workup and in women recalled from screening.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol was used for

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol was used for determining antimicrobial activity. Thus the essential oil from this species can be utilized as potential chemotherapeutic agent.”
“At the frontlines, members of Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA) are advocating for better outcomes for patients and their families, improving education for caregivers, P005091 supplier and developing new knowledge in caring for their patients with life-limiting conditions. The purpose of this research was to assess core competencies deemed most important by HPNA members by assessing the quantity and quality of continuing education, personal effectiveness, and the level of commitment to end-of-life or

palliative care by the nurse’s employer. A validated and replicated survey was mailed to 4022 HPNA members, with a nationally representative return rate of 31.2%. The main research variable was ranking of end-of-life care Selleckchem GSI-IX competencies and perceived gaps in palliative care continuing education. Nearly all of the respondents indicated that palliative care continuing education was important and nearly 80% of the respondents had 7 or more hours of specific continuing education in the preceding 2 years. Ninety-six percent of the respondents believe they are adequately prepared to effectively care for an individual with a life-limiting condition. Symptom management

was the top-rated core competency, although pain management and how to talk to patients and families about dying were also frequently selected. HPNA nurse respondents are comfortable with the quantity and quality of orientation buy SN-38 and continuing education within their scopes of practice in palliative care.”
“The commensal fungus Candida albicans

secretes a considerable number of proteins and, as in different fungal pathogens, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also been observed. Our report contains the first proteomic analysis of EVs in C. albicans and a comparative proteomic study of the soluble secreted proteins. With this purpose, cell-free culture supernatants from C. albicans were separated into EVs and EV-free supernatant and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A total of 96 proteins were identified including 75 and 61 proteins in EVs and EV-free supernatant, respectively. Out of these, 40 proteins were found in secretome by proteomic analysis for the first time. The soluble proteins were enriched in cell wall and secreted pathogenesis related proteins. Interestingly, more than 90% of these EV-free supernatant proteins were classical secretory proteins with predicted N-terminal signal peptide, whereas all the leaderless proteins involved in metabolism, including some moonlighting proteins, or in the exocytosis and endocytosis process were exclusively cargo of the EVs. We propose a model of the different mechanisms used by C. albicans secreted proteins to reach the extracellular medium.