The search was performed in Medline The search was repeated agai

The search was performed in Medline. The search was repeated again in May 2009 with the addition of the search terms ‘statins’, ‘aspirin’ and ‘anti-platelet

therapy’. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Systematic Reviews (via the Cochrane Library) were searched for trials and reviews not indexed in Medline. In addition, the reference lists of manuscripts retrieved by the above method were manually reviewed for additional studies. Date of searches: 28 August 2008, 2 April 2009, 11 May 2009. Franklin and Smith randomized 75 patients with documented renovascular hypertension to the ACE inhibitor enalapril plus the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide or triple therapy combination consisting of hydralazine, Ulixertinib mouse timolol and hydrochlorothiazide (Table 1).21,22 The latter combination was a commonly used regimen at that time for resistant hypertension. Renovascular hypertension was defined in this study by the simultaneous presence of a significant stenosis demonstrated

by arteriography and a positive functional test. The definition of what was regarded as a significant stenosis by arteriography Sirolimus mouse in the study was not stated. The study design consisted of a 15-day dose titration phase followed by a 6-week maintenance phase and the outcome was blood pressure control after the 6-week maintenance phase. There was a 12 mmHg greater decrease

in supine systolic blood pressure in the enalapril-treated group compared with the triple-drug therapy-treated group (P < 0.05). A significant increase in serum creatinine (>0.3 mg/dL) was observed in 20% of patients assigned to enalapril treatment but no cases of severe acute renal failure occurred. A smaller study of only 18 patients by Reams and Bauer also randomized patients PRKACG with renovascular disease to either enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide or triple-drug therapy consisting of hydrochlorothiazide, timolol and hydralazine.23 Effective control of blood pressure, defined as supine diastolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg, was achieved in all patients assigned enalapril in combination with hydrochlorothiazide and no adverse effects were observed. In contrast, 5/9 (56%) of patients on the triple-drug combination either had uncontrolled hypertension or developed significant side effects. Patients who were uncontrolled or intolerant of the triple-drug combination were well controlled by enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide. In summary, these two small trials suggest that an ACE inhibitor based-regimen appears to control blood pressure better in patients with renovascular hypertension than some other therapies.

Meanwhile, we found aberrant expression of some proteins associat

Meanwhile, we found aberrant expression of some proteins associated with oxidative stress, nitric oxide and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. AGEs, a marker for oxidative stress, which was over-expressed in abnormal fibres as

reported previously [18], can promote the abnormal oxidation of aggregated proteins. Over-expression of eNOS, associated with reduction of nitric oxide, may result in protein nitration and motivate toxic reactivity of aggregated proteins [18]. Mutant ubiquitin is a kind of misreading ubiquitin. Over-expression of mutant ubiquitin in the abnormal fibres indicated that the mutant desmin can impair the proteolytic function of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The over-expression of p62 could be a response to disturbance of the ubiquitin-mediated this website process [19]. Up to now, a total of 44 mutations responsible for desminopathy have been identified in the world. Many mutations were clustered in the helix 2B domain of desmin, and formed the hotspot region in Caucasian populations [8,34]. However, it is interesting that so many de

novo mutations (six of seven mutations) of the desmin gene were identified in the current series of patients. A different genetic background in affected patients is likely to further modify the clinical manifestations of disease in different Selleck Roxadustat populations. The novel S12F mutation located in the first site of a highly conserved nonpeptide motif (SSYRRTFGG) in the head domain of desmin is shared by other human intermediate filaments and conserved in the evolutionary tree. The loss of the Ser12 residue might alter the phosphorylation in the head domain, click here thus affecting desmin filament assembly and disassembly [22,35]. The four other mutations in helix 1A, 2A and 2B of the rod domain affected the mosaic arrangement of hydrophilic and

hydrophobic amino acids in the conserved heptad repeat. The changes were likely to decrease the local flexibility of a coiled-coil rod domain, thus obstructing the proper assembly of desmin intermediate filaments [36]. The T445A and E457V mutations were located in the highly conserved β-turn motif of the tail domain, which seems to be essential for inter-protofibrillar stability and width control, and thus interfered with the binding of desmin filaments to other proteins that are cofactors of the cytoskeleton, or parts of muscle-specific signalling cascades [37]. Since all novel mutations were distributed in several domains of desmin, it seemed unlikely that Chinese patients belonged to a distinctive group of desminopathy. Our functional studies provided compelling evidence that six mutants severely affected the ability of desmin to produce a filamentous network in a desmin-negative cell line.

Thus,

Thus, Vorinostat supplier the TCR-defined subsets express CD27 differentially, and their functional development might be determined accordingly, presumably by a combination of TCR and CD27-derived signals. Interestingly, although this is not discussed at length, Supporting Information Fig. 6 in the current paper 8 also shows a substantial difference in CD27 expression by Vδ2+ versus Vδ1+ human γδ T cells. Here, although CD27 expression in the Vδ1+ subset is more heterogeneous, a large fraction of these cells

express the molecule at nearly 10-fold higher levels than Vδ2+ cells. Because functional differences between human Vδ1+ and Vδ2+γδ T cells have been reported 15, perhaps combined influences of TCR and CD27 signaling determine functional differentiation here also (Fig. 1). In addition to the TNF-receptor family member CD27, which is also expressed by other lymphocyte types 3, mouse and human γδ T cells are known

to express TNF-R2 17, which is not normally expressed PI3K inhibitor by αβ T cells, as well as Fas 18, and CD30 19. As is the case with CD27, several TNF receptor family members, including HVEM, OX40, 4-1BB and CD30, are recognized as important costimulators in initiating and sustaining the T-cell response and in promoting long-lived immunity 20. Perhaps certain other TNF-receptors expressed by γδ T cells, e.g. CD30, might function as costimulators on γδ T cells as well. However, it remains to be seen whether any of those are also capable of influencing γδ T-cell functional bias, SB-3CT as is shown here with CD27 8. The authors thank the National Institutes

of Health (1R56A1 077594) and National Jewish Health for their support. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. See accompanying article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201040905 “
“In recent years, it has become apparent that the removal of apoptotic cells by macrophages and DC is not only noninflammatory, but also immune-inhibitory, in most although not all circumstances. Complement may be involved in the uptake of apoptotic cells via direct binding of bridging factors in some physiological circumstances, by opsonization and engagement of the complement receptors. In the current study, we use a complement-dependent system of apoptotic cell clearance by human-derived macrophages and DC. Using a luciferase reporter gene and measuring immune response to non-opsonic zymosan, we show that iC3b-apoptotic cells induce NF-κB inhibition in response to zymosan and LPS at the nuclear translocation, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, leading to profound inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, interaction with iC3b-opsonized apoptotic cells is characterized by macrophage secretion of IL-10 and lack of TGF-β secretion. In conclusion, in cells with iC3b receptors, opsonized apoptotic cells mediate a distinct anti-inflammatory response and transcriptional NF-κB-dependent blockage.

In a recent study, Warren et al 14 sequenced the TCR repertoire,

In a recent study, Warren et al.14 sequenced the TCR repertoire, and successfully obtained more than one billion Hydroxychloroquine manufacturer raw reads from a single blood sample, which is the deepest immune receptor sequencing to date, with a yield of about 200 million TCR-β nucleotide sequences. There are other sequencing machines available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We concentrate on the two machines mentioned above, as they are the only machines used so far in sequencing the immunological repertoire.

Other machines include the SOLiD sequencer (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY), Helicos (Cambridge, MA), PacBio (Menlo Park, CA), and IonTorrent (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY).11,15,16 The task at hand, for unbiased Rep-Seq protocols, is to isolate the relevant sequences, from the source B and T cells. These sequences are then sequenced by an NGS machine. To determine relative abundance of different sequences within the repertoire, a

proper account for each of the source sequences is made. Any biased amplification of some of the sequences will leave us with a skewed view of the repertoire. If, for example, one of the sequences in the process is favoured for amplification in one of the stages of the protocol, then we are left unable to discriminate such amplification from actual dominance of the clone in the repertoire. Causes for amplification are therefore an extremely sensitive issue in Rep-Seq and different groups provide different solutions (see below). Upon isolation of the appropriate genetic material (RNA/DNA, B cells/T cells), Rep-Seq requires Palbociclib the ‘lifting’ of the relevant immunoglobulin coding region. This is mostly done through a PCR-based amplification step. This amplification involves DNA primers with complementarities to the target regions. The standard technique uses multiple sets of primers, which are usually compatible with germline V

and J segments17–22 (Fig. 2a). It is impossible to design primers for all the numerous gene segments; for this reason Cediranib (AZD2171) primers are designed for families of genes or consensus sequences so that most gene segments are detected.23 A common primer should be designed to recognize the highest consensus region, whereas unique or family primers should recognize the least consensus region within a segment. In addition, specific tags can be added to the primers; for example, to identify from which sample a sequence was amplified.21 However, using a multiplex PCR amplification system, a strong bias is expected towards specific V and J segments, and so observed sequence relative abundances may not accurately reflect real amounts. To deal with these issues, 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′-RACE) has been used (see refs 14,24,25; Fig. 1b). The group of Daniel Douek at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD) have recently established their own 5′ RACE protocol.

07% in a relatively large screen

of HLA-A2 donors without

07% in a relatively large screen

of HLA-A2 donors without melanoma [14]. Interestingly, tetramer-binding CD8+ T cells are Opaganib supplier also detectable in HLA-A2-negative healthy subjects at frequencies that are barely detectable ex vivo and approximately one order of magnitude lower than those detected in the HLA-A2+ individuals [15]. In both HLA-A2+ and A2– healthy donors, the phenotype and functional profile of these tetramer-binding CD8+ T cells are indistinguishable from that of the naïve CD8+ T-cell pool [13-15]. These findings were surprising and had no precedent in either the human or the mouse immune systems. For most other epitopes of CD8+ check details and also CD4+ T cells, the precursor frequency of naïve cells is far below the limit of detection of tetramers by ex vivo, multiparameter flow cytometry analyses. The estimates of such frequencies after magnetic

bead pull down of tetramer+ T cells have been approximated at one specific T cell per one million T cells [16-18]. In fact, the frequencies of Melan-A/MART-1-specific CD8+T cells in healthy individuals are comparable to those measured of T cells specific for some viral epitopes [19]. In sharp contrast, however, T cells specific for viral epitopes are phenotypically and functionally antigen-experienced memory T cells, corresponding to the previous exposure to the respective antigens [20]. Thus, the question was how such an abundant repertoire of naïve antigen-specific T cells could be generated, at least a hundred times more abundant than most other antigen-specific naïve T-cell precursors measured by tetramer binding

assays (Fig. 1). Two major reasons have emerged upon careful study of these cells in the human thymus and the composition of their TCR repertoire. It became clear, on the one hand, that a significant proportion of human subjects (more than half) contain detectable Melan-A/MART-1 tetramer+ CD8+ T cells in cord blood Liothyronine Sodium lymphocytes [21]. Moreover, these cells are also measurable in single CD8+ thymocytes in thymuses from children. Thus, it appears that a high thymic output is one of the reasons for the high frequency of these cells. This is coupled with a slow in vivo turnover of these cells during adult life, as could be directly estimated by measuring two tell-tale features of proliferative history in human lymphocytes: the length of chromosomal telomeres and the levels of TCR-alpha excision circles [21]. To this day, the remarkable stability of the naïve Melan-A specific T-cell repertoire remains most intriguing. Indeed, the antigen Melan-A is normally expressed by melanocytes and even keratinocytes which receive from melanocytes melanosomes containing the Melan-A/MART-1 polypeptide [22].

These cells stimulate T helper type 1 (Th1) helper cells that in

These cells stimulate T helper type 1 (Th1) helper cells that in turn elicit the production of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) [22]. These cytotoxic effector cells attack infected cells, resulting in resolution of the infection [23]. However, little is known about how to modulate these immune responses. Prophylactic vaccination. 

Vaccination p38 MAPK phosphorylation with VLPs gives rise to virus-neutralizing antibodies in serum. Vaccination by intramuscular injection of L1 VLPs has been shown to be highly immunogenic and well tolerated in Phase I trials [24–27]. Three randomized placebo-controlled Phase II trials with, respectively, a monovalent HPV16 vaccine, a bivalent HV16/18 vaccine and a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine candidate have consistently demonstrated almost complete protection against persistent infection with the targeted HPV types [28–32]. Moreover, these trials confirmed Seliciclib order the safety of the vaccines and showed strong immunoresponses that were several orders of magnitude higher than those observed after natural infections. Two pharmaceutical companies [Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)] have completed large multi-centre Phase III vaccine trials

in all continents except Africa [33–35]. In addition, the National Cancer Institute (United States) is conducting a population-based trial in Costa Rica using the bivalent vaccine [36]. These Phase III trials demonstrated that vaccines protect against histologically confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) associated with the targeted HPV types under the condition that subjects were not infected with one or more vaccine types at baseline [33–35]. Both vaccine formulations have a good safety profile. Tangeritin Neither has noted any therapeutic effect, as women who test positive for HPV DNA prior to vaccination show no protection against disease end-points associated with that type. Modest cross-protection to closely related high-risk types HPV

31, 33, 45 was found with bivalent vaccine [Cervarix(R)][37] and also to some extent with the quadrivalent vaccine [Gardasil(R)][38,39]. Therapeutic HPV vaccines.  Development of cervical precursors, their maintenance and progression to invasive cancer requires the continued intracellular expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 [40,41]. Therefore, therapeutic vaccines have been directed towards stimulating T cell responses against these viral early oncogenes. The approaches include administration of peptide antigens or recombinant proteins, plasmid DNA vaccines, viral vector vaccines and administration of E7-pulsed dendritic cells, but despite being variably immunogenic have not shown an impact upon invasive cancer but appear to induce some degree of clearance of cancer precursors or anogenital warts [23,42–44].

151 However, investigators have shown that no interaction occurs

151 However, investigators have shown that no interaction occurs when the itraconazole capsule is co-administered with the non-buffered enteric-coated ddI formulation that is currently marketed.152 Early studies of antacid co-administration

with posaconazole tablets suggested that elevations in gastric pH did not produce clinically significant changes in selleck chemical posaconazole concentrations or exposure.153 However, a well-designed study using the currently marketed formulation and a proton pump inhibitor clearly demonstrates that posaconazole absorption is significantly impacted by changes in pH and food.45 Co-administration with a proton pump inhibitor reduces posaconazole Cmax and exposure selleck chemicals llc by 46% and 32% respectively.45 Food, irrespective of whether it is a solid or liquid and regardless of fat content, significantly increases the bioavailability of posaconazole.46,47,153 Indeed, the effect of food on posaconazole

pharmacokinetics is much greater than that of pH.45,153 Increases in gastric emptying caused by prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide may result in reductions in Cmax and exposure that are likely not clinically significant.45 In contrast, the co-administration of this azole with loperamide, an antikinetic agent, produces no clinically relevant effects on posaconazole pharmacokinetics.45 In patients who require acid suppression therapy and treatment with either itraconazole or posaconazole, the interactions can be managed. In patients requiring itraconazole therapy, the solution should be employed. For protracted courses of therapy, the solution may be impractical and an appropriate alternative antifungal agent should be considered. To maximise posaconazole absorption in patients requiring acid suppression therapy, the drug should be administered in divided doses with or after a high-fat meal, or at least with any meal, a nutritional supplement, or an acidic beverage.45 Induction of antifungal biotransformation.  Antifungal agents can produce additive toxicities with other

medicines and alter the distribution, metabolism and elimination of many other drugs. However, few drugs can enhance the toxicity, or decrease the Bacterial neuraminidase serum concentrations or systemic exposure of antifungal agents. Medicines that affect the disposition of antifungal agents do so by inducing enzymes involved in oxidative or conjugative metabolism, or transport proteins. Interactions affecting the disposition of antifungal agents typically involve phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, rifampin, ritonavir, efavirenz and other well-known inducers of CYP3A4. In addition, as illustrated by the interaction between rifampin and caspofungin, our understanding of the induction of transport proteins will grow as their role in drug disposition continues to evolve. The majority of interactions affecting the disposition of antifungal agents involves the induction of CYP3A4.

Mice were housed and bred in the Biomedical Research Facility at

Mice were housed and bred in the Biomedical Research Facility at University of North Dakota. All the animal procedures have been approved by the UND IACUC committee. K. pneumoniae (ATCC 43816 serotype II) was provided by Dr. V. Miller (Washington University, St. Louis) [[41]]. Bacteria were grown overnight in LB broth at 37°C with shaking. The bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation at 5000 × g. We then anesthetized mice with 45 mg/kg ketamine and intranasally instilled 2 × 105 colony-forming units (CFUs) of K. pneumoniae in

PBS (50 μl). BAL was performed 5 times with 1.0 mL volumes of lavage fluid, while the first 0.5 mL was saved separately for cytokine detection. A cell smear was made from Ivacaftor ic50 learn more the BAL fluid and stained with HEMA-3 (Fisher, Rockford, IL) for cell differential counting. AMs were collected

from the BAL fluid precipitate after centrifuging at 2000 × g for 5 min at 4°C and cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% newborn calf serum and penicillin/streptomycin in a 5% CO2 incubator. After BAL procedures, the lung, liver, and kidneys were aseptically harvested for homogenization or fixed in 10% formalin or OCT [[42]]. For evaluating bacterial burdens in BAL AMs, and lung tissue, BAL was performed to get rid of the free bacteria. Homogenization of lung tissue was done using liquid nitrogen and samples kept on dry ice before dissolving in RIPA buffer for western blotting analysis or in PBS for CFU and superoxide analysis. For western blotting, the samples were sonicated for three times at 10 s each. Histology slides were made after formalin fixation, and stained with the standard hematoxylin-eosin method [[43]]. For immunohistochemistry assays, we performed OCT fixation and cryosection and stained the slides using the methods described previously [[44]]. AMs were resuspended in lysis solution. Lung or other tissues were homogenized by pestle/mortar in liquid nitrogen and followed

by brief sonication. AMs from BAL fluid or homogenized tissues of the lung, liver, and kidneys were spread on LB plates to enumerate the bacteria that have invaded into AMs or tissues. Free bacteria were killed with polymycin B (200 μg/mL) for 1 h and washed away by lavage. Selected unlavaged selleck inhibitor samples were also saved and assessed to evaluate the differences in cell signaling. The plates were cultured in a 37°C incubator for 18 h, and bacterial colonies were counted [[22]]. Triplicates were done for each sample and control. Cytokine concentrations in BAL fluids (the first 0.5 mL lavage solution) or tissues were measured by standard ELISA kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions (eBioscience company, San Diego, CA) [[45]]. To overcome detection limits (5 pg/mL), we have only used the initial 0.5 mL of lavage solution to determining cytokine concentrations.

The concentration of peptide required to generate 50% of the maxi

The concentration of peptide required to generate 50% of the maximal response was used as a measure of avidity. Mice were sacrificed 14 days after a single priming vaccination. Single-cell suspensions from individual spleens were cultured in complete medium in 25 cm2 upright flasks (3×106 cells/mL) supplemented with 10−8 M of the corresponding PSMA HLA-A*0201-binding peptide and 20 IU/mL IL-2 (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK). Following 6 days stimulation in vitro, the cytolytic activity of the CTL cultures was assessed in Kinase Inhibitor Library price a standard

5-h 51Cr-release assay. Target cells were labeled with 51Cr with or without peptide for 1 h. Target (T) cells (5×103) were then cultured with effector (E) T cells at different E:T ratios.

Specific % lysis was calculated by the formula: (release by CTL−release by targets alone)/(release by 4% NP40−release by targets alone)×100. Splenocytes harvested from naïve HHD mice were pulsed with 1 mM PSMA27, PSMA663, or control HLA-A*0201-binding anti-PD-1 antibody inhibitor peptide (VLHDDLLEA) at a concentration of 2×107/mL in PBS. The cells were then labeled with either 0.5 or 5 μM CFSE (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen) for 8 min at 37°C before adding FCS to a final concentration of 20% to quench the reaction. After washing, the cells were mixed at a 1:1 ratio such that each prevaccinated mouse received 1×107 cells pulsed with PSMA peptide and the same number pulsed with control peptide in 0.1 mL PBS by intravenous injection. Splenocytes were harvested from individual mice 20 h later, lymphocytes were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and CFSE staining was analyzed by FACS Canto (BD Pharmingen). Lymphocytes from the same mice were also used in an ELISpot assay as described. HHD mice were vaccinated with p.DOM-PSMA27, p.DOM-PSMA663, or p.DOM control vaccine 13 days prior to the assay. TRAMP-PSMA+ HHD+, and TRAMP-HHD+ cells were labeled with 10 and 1 μM CFSE, respectively, as described above and then mixed in a 1:1 ratio. The cell suspension was then mixed

with Matrigel® (BD Biosciences) at a ratio of 1:1 so that each mouse received 1×106 of each population in a total volume of 150 μL by subcutaneous injection. Matrigel® cell suspensions were kept on ice 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase until the time of injection, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. After 5 days, the Matrigel® plugs were harvested and digested with 1 mg/mL collagenase/dispase and 0.5 mg/mL DNAseI. CFSE staining of the cells released from the plug was analyzed using a FACS Calibur (BD). The spleens of the same mice were used in an ELISpot assay, as described, to identify those responding to vaccination; animals with an IFN-γ response of less than twice the background or <50 SFCs/106 cells were excluded from the analysis. Experimental groups were compared using a Mann–Whitney U-test. In vivo tumor lysis was analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.

The data showed consistency with a recent report suggesting the e

The data showed consistency with a recent report suggesting the expression of Il10 mRNA in CD19+ B cells of draining LN of susceptible mice at the first day post-inoculation, and it was shown that B cells play as a source of IL-10 which influences the susceptibility of BALB/c

mice to L. major infection [30]. At the late stage of the infection, augmented expression of this cytokine was documented at W3 and then tended to gradually decrease at W5 and W8 post-infection. DE5 strain showed the highest level of expression at W3 post-infection. It seems that IL-10 along with IL-4 cytokine is responsible for the susceptibility of the BALB/c mice to L. major infection, as suggested before [31]. Hence, our results showed that the contribution of www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN8237.html DA39 strain in eliciting Il10 mRNA expression is lower than most strains at 16 h and during the late stage of infection. Taken together, the results of this study show that different strains of L. major display different virulence and induce different patterns of cytokine expression in BALB/c mice. While DA39 strain induced the lowest parasite load, high-level expression of Th1-related cytokines mRNA MK-2206 ic50 and higher Ifng/Il4 mRNA ratio in LN of BALB/c mice, the SH25 strain elicited the highest number

of viable parasite in LN of the infected mice and a lower level of Ifng/Il4 mRNA ratio than DA39 strain at 40 h and 8 weeks post-infection. Interestingly, DA39 strain has failed to induce higher expressions of both Il4 and Il10 mRNA, especially at the late stage of the infection. It is noteworthy that in our previous study, similar results in the parasite burden and the generation of IFN-γ induced by DA39 strain were reported at 4 weeks post-infection, however at that study, we reported

higher levels of IFN- produced by DE5 strain than DA39 at W8 post-infection [14]. The reason for this discrepancy may be attributed to the methods used for the cytokine evaluation. It might be considered that the expression of the cytokines mRNA by real-time PCR seems to be a more precise method than assessment of the cytokine in lymphocyte culture. Moreover, the Methocarbamol present study was repeated for three times, and the third experiment results were reported as representative. Therefore, DA39 strain might be considered as an ideal strain for the vaccine studies. In conclusion, our results showed variable parasite loads and different expressions of cytokine mRNA in LN of mice infected with the four strains of L. major. Amongst the four strains isolated from the four endemic areas of Iran and analysed by SSCP, DA39 strain induced lower load of parasites in LN of the inoculated BALB/c mice. Moreover, this strain elicited higher expressions of Ifng and Il12 mRNA and lower expressions of Il4 and Il10 mRNA in draining LN of the infected BALB/c mice at early and late stages post-infection.