“Background. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for morbidity/mortality in patients with
end stage renal disease (ESRD). Our study aimed to identify prevalence as well as independent risk factors that contribute to the development of LV geometric remodeling in our HD patients. Methods. The left ventricles of 116 HD patients were classified echocardiographically into four different geometric patterns on the basis of LV mass and relative wall thickness. Furthermore, BIX01294 we measured inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and its collapsibility index (CI) by echocardiography. Finally, we modeled a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the predictors of LV geometry. Results. Our study provides evidence that HD patients had a prevalence of abnormal LV geometry in 92% and LVH in 81%. We found all four geometric models of LV. Most dominant were eccentric LVH. Concentric LVH was observed in 37, normal geometry (NG) in 9, and concentric remodeling (CR) in 13 of HD patients. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the cL VII group (95 +/- 10 mmHg) than in the NG and CR groups (81.6 +/- 12.3 and 80 +/- 11.8, respectively, p < 0.001). The cL VH and eCL VH groups had significantly lower mean hemoglobin SBE-β-CD ic50 (10.3 +/- 1.4g/dL and 10.6 +/- 1g/dL, respectively) compared
with the NG group (11.9 +/- 1.4g/dL), p < 0.001. Furthermore, interdialytic weight gain (kg) was significantly higher in eCL
VII group (3.13 +/- 0.8) than in NG group (2.3 +/- 1.1), p < 0.001. Mean IVC index of the eL VH group (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m(2)) was significantly higher than corresponding indexes of NG (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m2), CR (8.31 find protocol +/- 1.32 mm/m(2)) and cL VH (8.12 +/- 2.06 mm/m(2)) groups (p < 0.001 for each comparisons). Conclusion. Mean arterial pressure, hemoglobin, IVC index, and interdialytic weight gain were found to be independent predictors of LV geometry (R(2) = 0.147; p < 0.001) in HD patients.”
“Novel phenolic type of thermoset resins were synthesized, and their mechanical and toughness properties were evaluated. Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) phenolic resins were modified to broaden their applications for modern composite structures. A first modification consisted of copolymerization of Phenol with Cardanol during the synthesis of resole phenolic (CPF) resins. The modified phenolic resins (CPF) were prepared at various molar ratios of total Phenol to Formaldehyde (F : P ratio) and with different weight ratios of Phenol to Cardanol. CPF resins with a maximum content of 40 wt % of Cardanol were synthesized and used. The CPF resins were applied as a plasticizer and toughening agent to the base PF resins. Both resins (CPF/PF) were mixed in different proportions, and their thermal and mechanical properties were then established. A full miscibility of the two resins was observed with the formation of a single-phase system.