Data regarding the patients’

Data regarding the patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and clinical findings were recorded using a questionnaire. All the patients underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy with a small, flexible Olympus (Melville, NY) GIF-N30 endoscope by four pediatric gastroenterologists in the Pediatric Gastroenterology Department of our center, and the findings were recorded in the questionnaire. The patients received Midazolam

(1mg/kg) intravenously several minutes before endoscopy as a sedative agent. Several mucosal biopsies were taken under direct visualization of the mucosa and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical vasculature. Phosphate-buffered formalin was used for fixing the specimens and biopsies. Paraffin-embedded Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specimens were sectioned in 5-6 µm slices and were further stained with hematoxylin and eosin according to the standard laboratory methods. All the

slides were reviewed by a pathologist, and the results were recorded in the questionnaire. The criteria for reflux esophagitis were comprised of basal zone hyperplasia, elongated stromal papillae, and vascular ingrowths. The drugs consumed by the patients were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical further categorized as those being unrelated to esophagitis, those being responsible for inducing esophagitis, and those being effective in the treatment of esophagitis. NSAIDs, Prednisolone, Mycophenolate Mofetil (CellCept), Cyclosporine, Acyclovir, Metronidazole, Meropenem, Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Warfarin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Co-trimoxazole, Fluconazole, Mesalamine, and Tacrolimus were considered to be responsible for inducing esophagitis, whereas Omeprazole, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Pantoprazole, Metoclopramide, Ondansetron, Ranitidine, Cimetidine, aluminium-magnesium, and Motilium were considered as effective agents in the treatment of esophagitis. The data were prospectively entered into a computer database, and were further analyzed by SPSS software, version 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The data are reported as mean±SD or proportions. Results We studied 125 children with pathology-confirmed esophagitis. The study population consisted of 61

(48.8%) girls and 64 (51.2%) boys at a mean age of Dacomitinib 6.6±5.5 years. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients are summarized in table 1. Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 125 pediatric patients with esophagitis Repeated vomiting was the prominent symptom in our selleck chem Regorafenib series, which was it being reported by 75 (60%) patients, followed by fever in 35 (28%) and Brefeldin failure to thrive in 24 (19.2%). Most of the patients (60%) were more than 2 years of age and, thus, consumed a large variety of food. However, 16 (12.7%) patients were breastfed with a dairy elimination diet, while 14 (11.2%) were breastfed. The drugs being consumed by 107 (85.6%) patients were found to be responsible for inducing esophagitis, whereas in the others (14.4%), the drugs were unrelated to the disease. Liver transplantation (44.9%) and thrombocytopenia (23.

37,38 The finding becomes more intriguing when it is recalled tha

37,38 The finding becomes more intriguing when it is recalled that ~80% of individuals with schizophrenia are daily smokers.37 Additionally, there is evidence that atypical antipsychotic medications can “normalize” abnormal P50 testing.39-42 These results indicate a critical

point when considering endophenotypes: environmental influences must be considered, not only as sources of variance (eg, experimental error, circadian variation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical influence of personal habits such as nicotine and caffeine intake), but also as clues to mechanisms that may provide pathways from gene variants to endophenotypes, or from endophenotypes to key symptom clusters or subtypes of disorders. To summarize the P50 endophenotype literature, there is substantial evidence that the P50 abnormality in schizophrenia fulfills generally accepted criteria for an endophenotype. Variation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in or near the α7-nicotinic

receptor subunit gene may explain some of the genetic variance in the P50 measurement, and additional research with this endophenotype can be expected Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to yield new insights into this subtype of schizophrenia. Stability and heritability of an endophenotype: cognitive deficits in schizpophrenia as an example A second endophenotype that has been studied extensively in schizophrenia is working memory. This term can be defined as the holding of information in the consciousness, in preparation for complex processing. Working memory can be assessed by multiple different mental tasks, such as N back, Wisconsin Card Sort, and reverse digit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical span. Deficits

in working memory have been described as an endophenotype for schizophrenia (for a review, see reference 43). The fraction of individuals with schizophrenia who are designated as having abnormal working memory varies with the tests employed, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the clinical population studied, and the definition of abnormal (eg, 1.5 or 2 standard deviation units below the mean for controls). If consideration is given only to studies of large numbers of cases (-100) and controls, most reports selleck chemical describe 25% to 50% of persons with schizophrenia as falling in the variably defined “deficit range” for working memory44-49 Several lines of evidence suggest that the working memory deficits are partly heritable. Twin studies of unaffected and discordant (for schizophrenia) Cilengitide monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs indicate that genetic influences in the schizophrenia-related working memory deficits are prominent.50-53 In addition, multiple studies suggest that a small fraction of the variance in working memory scores is explained by a functional variant in the catechol- O selleck Tofacitinib methyltransferase (COMT) gene,54-56 although this finding is not observed consistently57 Working memory deficits are more common among the unaffected relatives (compared with controls) of schizophrenic individuals who have deficits themselves (for a review, see reference 8).

2 2 Influence of Transcription Factors on Gene Expression To det

2.2. Influence of Transcription sellekchem factors on Gene Expression To determine the κi coefficients for the model, NCA was applied with three data sets. In addition, transcription factor activities could

be determined as well and compared with biological knowledge on the system. The model is similar to the previous one [3]: 32 transcriptional units are used and three transcription factors are considered (Crp, ArcA, and FruR). Although other transcription factors such as Fnr, SoxS or PdhR influence some of the genes, they are not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical considered explicitly here, since they are not involved in sensing metabolic fluxes in glycolysis. The number of time points is 35 (16 from growth on glucose and lactose [12], 18 from the glucose pulse experiment in this study, and 1 from growth on acetate [13]). Although strains that are used

in the cited studies are different, a comparison of the growth behavior for the strains used in [12,14] reveals consistency with respect to the growth rate. Experiments in this study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were performed with the same strain as in [14]. Since from [13] only one data point was taken into account, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the entire data set can be regarded as consitent. As described above, elements of the coupling matrix K and transcription factor activities TF are determined with NCA. Figure 3 shows the results for strain LJ110 after a glucose pulse. In a continuous culture, E. coli grows under glucose limited conditions. At time point zero, glucose was pulsed and the dynamics of the extracellular components and biomass was followed. Plot A shows the time course for glucose (diamonds) and acetate (squares). Three phases can be seen and are marked with vertical lines: After 10 h, glucose is depleted; at time point 15 h E. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coli switches to growth on acetate, and after 20 h acetate is depleted. Plots B/C shows the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical corresponding activities of the transcription factors Crp and FruR, respectively. sellckchem During growth on glucose, Crp activity is low and after depletion of glucose, Crp activity becomes more and more active. In contrast, FruR activity

is high during growth on glucose (since inducer fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is expected to be high in this phase [15]), and only after shift to acetate uptake, FruR activity becomes lower as expected from other experiments [16]. Figure 3 Left (plot A): experimental data for glucose (diamonds) and acetate (squares); Drug_discovery middle (plot B) NCA results: Crp transcription factor activity; right (plot C) NCA results: FruR transcription factor activity. Circles indicate the sampling time points for … The elements of the coupling matrix K that were needed for the core model of the glycolysis are summarized in Table 2. Values are given for the genes pfkA, eno, gap, and pykF. See Appendix for a complete plot with all entries of K. Table 2 Entries κi of the coupling matrix K. In further calculations the two values for eno and gap (κ2) are taken as representatives for the lumped glyoclytic reaction rgly.

IMAGING NERVES IN PAIN High-resolution magnetic resonance neurog

IMAGING NERVES IN PAIN High-resolution magnetic resonance neurography provides excellent visualization of peripheral nerves and may be an integral component in evaluating nerve injuries, supplementing electrodiagnostic (ED) references studies, such as electromyography, nerve conduction studies, and quantitative neurosensory testing.40 Structural imaging of nerve bundles, however, has Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been optimized to provide 3-dimensional high-resolution and high-contrast neurography. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) demonstrates the random diffusion of water. By evaluating water diffusion in multiple

directions, nerve fiber tracts, with their myelin sheath, may be visualized though tractography, as water diffuses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical along but not across the nerve bundles.41 Functional imaging of the nerves and nerve roots has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been achieved. The utility of structural and diffusion imaging

of neuropathies is illustrated by a collection of prominent studies,42–45 reproduced in Figure 2. Figure 2 Examples Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of MRI Nerve Imaging. IMAGING NERVE ROOTS IN PAIN Primary afferent nerves in the dorsal root ganglia convey pain information to the central nervous system. Both peripheral inflammation and nerve damage can lead to alterations in anatomy and function of neurons within the ganglion, alterations that contribute to persistent pain states.46,47 While the dorsal roots are too small for standard neuroimaging approaches, the trigeminal ganglion serves an equivalent role for the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal ganglion is located at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial

fossa across the superior border of the petrous temporal bone. It comprises Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sensory neurons from the ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal nerve. We have demonstrated that fMRI can be used to assess both sensory (brush) and noxious thermal activation of the ganglion. Activation occurred ipsilaterally and somatotopically, as predicted by the known anatomical segregation of the neurons comprising the V1, V2, and V3 divisions of the nerve (Figure 3).46 We have further demonstrated that sensory processing in patients with trigeminal neuropathic pain is associated with distinct activation patterns AV-951 consistent with sensitization within and done outside of the primary sensory pathway,48 and, in a case study, we demonstrated trigeminal ganglion activation in photophobia.49 Using diffusion tensor imaging, we have further been able to segment the peripheral trigeminal circuitry, trigeminal nerve branches (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves), ganglion, and nerve root, and further segment the spinal trigeminal and trigeminal thalamic tracts, which, respectively, convey information to the spinal trigeminal nuclei and ventral thalamic regions.

However, experiments to test, this hypothesis indicated that acu

However, experiments to test, this hypothesis indicated that acute twice stress did not disrupt the cycle. We did observe an increase in estrogen levels after its cessation.53 However, injection of stress levels of estradiol did not. impair learning as did the stressor. Thus, the effect of stress on memory formation

in the female Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depends less on absolute levels of estrogen and more on their fluctuation during and shortly after the traumatic event. Consistent, with some of the emotional disturbances that can occur during menstruation, postpartum, and menopause, these data suggest, that females are particularly susceptible to the deleterious consequences of stress when ovarian hormones are fluctuating. Table I. Sex differences in mental illness. Conclusion: sex differences in mental illness That females are different from males may come as no surprise. Nor that, their brains are different. What might. be unexpected is that they would Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical respond in opposite directions to the same environmental event, and that their brains would follow in course. In the face of such divergence, perhaps we should reconsider sex differences in mental illness (Table I). Females are not only more likely to experience depression, but. also phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. They are more often diagnosed with eating disorders, as well as borderline

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and histrionic

personality disorders. Males, on the other hand, are more likely to experience Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical autism and antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders, as well as attention deficit, disorder and mental retardation. It may be instructive that the mental disorders more common in women are related to affect whereas those more common in men are related to cognition. Exactly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical how information about sex differences in emotional and cognitive responses in rats can be used to understand or promote mental health in humans is unclear, but a greater appreciation of our differences can only enhance our ability to treat our common afflictions. Notes Supported by grants from the National Institutes of Mental Health (MH59970) and (MH 59740), National Cilengitide Alliance for Research on Pazopanib PDGFR Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), and the van Arneringen Foundation.
There is extensive literature documenting the moderating effects of healthy aging and gender on cognition. Convergent multidisciplinary efforts, mostly in young adults, have helped identify neural systems associated with behavioral domains. Age effects on behavior and brain parameters are already observed in young adulthood. These indicate more pronounced age-related changes in men than in women. Sex differences are salient, in the aging process, and there is increasing evidence for the role of ovarian hormones in mediating behavior and brain function.

158,159 Figure 6 Functional imaging using 17O to map % change i

158,159 Figure 6. Functional imaging using 17O to map % change in cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMR02) vs blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) in the cat brain. Adapted rom ref 145: Zhu XH, Zhang N, Zhang Y, Ugurbil K, Chen W. New insights into central roles of cerebral … Conclusion Animal model studies have played a critical role in evaluating the potential of the MR imaging and spectroscopy techniques to study basic brain function, brain diseases,

and mechanisms underlying neuroimaging. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Very high magnetic fields have been indispensable for achieving important gains in biological information content in these studies. The introduction of latest generation of MR systems operating at magnetic fields ranging from ~ 11 to 17 Tesla is expected to advance the field further for animal model experiments. Acknowledgments Acknowledgments: The preparation of this review was in part supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and Stroke (NINDS) grant R01 NS070815 (GÖ). The Center for MR Research is supported

by National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) biotechnology research resource grant P41 RR008079, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) grant P41 EB015894 and NINDS grant P30 NS076408. Selected abbreviations and acronyms MRI magnetic sellectchem resonance imaging BOLD blood oxygen level-dependent CNR contrast to noise ratio MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy NAA N-acetylaspartate GABA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical γ-aminobutyric acid AD Alzheimer’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disease HD Huntington’s disease
Due to the scarcity of examples of either type of project caricatured above (production or technology), we scrutinize the few that exist for analogies and insights to enhance the best and avoid the worst. inhibitor Idelalisib Lesson one: aggressively encourage technology development from the start. There was not a single Genome Project, but three fundamentally different strategies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and phases—a technology-assessment phase initiated by the Department of Energy (1984-1990),

the NIH-driven production phase (Human Genome Project, HGP, 1990-2004), and the NIH Advanced Sequencing Technology Development (ASTD, 2004-2013) phase. The BRAIN project will hopefully focus on the ASTD precedent, which (with annual funds only 6% of the HGP) helped drop the cost of sequencing by a million-fold in 6 years. It achieved this GSK-3 via advanced imaging and highly multiplexed biochemistry, not mere parallelism via conventional lab robotics. Lesson two: Consider practical applications from the start. It could be said that brain technologies seem less mature than genomics at the corresponding project start points. In reality, no commercial or clinical applications of genomics existed in 1984. In contrast, at the start of the BRAIN project, millions of patients already benefit from cochlear, cardiac, retinal, and deep-brain electrode implant therapies as well as EEG and imaging technologies. Lesson three: The goal need not be “simple.

57 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors In contrast to ß-bloc

57 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors In contrast to ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have not been significantly linked with depression. In fact, while several case reports and a small, open trial have found these agents efficacious in the treatment of major depression,58 larger, PXD101 randomized trials have not been performed. There are fewer reports of mood effects

associated with other ACE inhibitors; in one report, lisinopril was used in the adjunctive treatment of depression.59 The newer angiotensin-II Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receptor blockers (ARBs) (eg, losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan) similarly do not appear to have clear associations with depression. Calcium-channel blockers Calcium-channel blockers have relatively low rates of adverse neuropsychiatric consequences. Calcium-channel blockers may be associated with fatigue, but they have not been associated with depression.52,60 Verapamil has been the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most-studied calcium-channel blocker for mania

and bipolar disorder and it Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has had mixed, but generally positive, results; this agent may be a viable option for patients with bipolar disorder who are pregnant or who fail first-line therapies. Calcium-channel blockers have been studied in the treatment of depressive symptoms, with only modest results. Verapamil was less effective than amitriptyline (a TCA) in a double-blind trial for depression,61 and ineffective for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression among patients refractory to TCAs.62 Furthermore, because calcium-channel blockers may be effective in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease, nimodipine has been used to augment antidepressant treatment in patients suffering from vascular depression (ie, new-onset depression in older

adults associated with vascular lesions) in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.63 Both studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical found that the addition of nimodipine was superior to placebo in reducing depressive symptoms Entinostat and in lowering rates of recurrence. Diuretics Diuretics are generally associated with low rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events. One series of eight patients reported a link between use of thiazide diuretics and depression,64 although further evidence for this association is lacking. Other diuretics have relatively few neuropsychiatric effects. Loop diuretics (such as furosemide and ethacrynic acid) have not been associated with mood syndromes. Epstein and read this Grant65 found that nearly half of carbonic anhydrase-inhibitor-treated patients had a mild syndrome of fatigue, malaise, anorexia, and depression, and that such symptoms were associated with acidosis.

ncbi nlm nih gov/gene/7225) have been implicated as candidates fo have been implicated as candidates for cardiac SACNS. TRPC1:

Analysis of mRNA expression suggested that TRPC1 is present in the human heart. 48 Using immuno-histochemical labelling and confocal imaging, TRPC1 protein was found price WAY-100635 to colocalise with phalloidin stain in rat ventricular myocytes. 42 This suggests that TRPC1 may be located in T-tubules and is consistent with the hypothesised spatial distribution of endogenous SACNS in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. Mechanosensitivity of TRPC1 was first noted by Maroto et al. 49 in Xenopus oocytes. In their experiments, ISAC,NS was measured after membrane protein fractionation and reconstitution of individual proteins in liposomes. A particularly mechanosensitive fraction was found to contain an 80-kDa protein which was immunoreactive to TRPC1 antibody, indicating the presence of a TRPC1 homologue. Further expression of the human TRPC1 (hTRPC1) isoform in Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells increased ISAC,NS tenfold, whereas microinjection of antisense hTRPC1 RNA greatly reduced ISAC,NS in both cell types. Since publication, these findings have been challenged by several studies, including one by some of the authors of the original report. They found that transfection of hTRPC1 into COS cells (a fibroblast-related cell line, originally derived from kidney tissue of monkey) had no discernible effect, while transfection

of a different putative SAC (the SACK TREK-1; see below), induced an increase by three orders of magnitude in mechanosensitive whole-cell currents. This result puts into question the significance of the less pronounced (ten-fold) increase seen in the earlier experiments. 50 The authors of the later study found limited ion channel expression at the sarcolemma, which is in agreement with a more recent report showing predominantly intracellular expression of transfected TRPC1 in a skeletal muscle cell line, unless co-expressed with Cav3 ( 51 Thus, even if TRPC1 is successfully transfected, it may require associated

molecular machinery for a correct subcellular localization and/or proper function. In addition, TRPC1 may require other TRPC isoforms to Anacetrapib form a functional heteromeric channel. 52 The conflicting results reported above highlight problems that can be associated with the use of heterologous expression systems to study cardiac ion channels. Clearly, the intracellular environment of stable cell lines differs significantly from that of cardiomyocytes, while additional transfection with exogenous ion channels can alter the structure and function of recipient cells. 50 Given the dependence of SAC gating properties on micro-mechanical and structural properties of a cell, it is difficult to establish suitable control protocols, 50 or to arrive at definitive conclusions from these experiments.

Microsphere embolism model used in this study has been shown to i

Microsphere embolism model used in this study has been shown to induce widespread formation of small permanent emboli in the ipsilateral hemisphere and severe spatial learning and memory dysfunction (Miyake et al. 1993; Nagakura et al. 2002; Date et al. 2004). Therefore, microsphere embolism model is considered to mimic focal ischemia-induced human stroke and/or multi-infarct dementia (Naritomi 1991; Lyden et al. 1992). In previous studies, we isolated NPCs and injected them

intravenously on day 7 after the induction of cerebral embolism to avoid the inappropriate environment for therapeutic injection of NPCs that would exist this site Immediately after a stroke (Mochizuki et al. 2011; Moriyama et al. 2011). These Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies demonstrated that the intravenous injection of NPCs improves motor function, spatial learning dysfunction, and depression-like behavior after Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cerebral ischemia (Mochizuki et al. 2011; Moriyama et al. 2011). However, it has not been reported whether intravenous administration of NPC at a selleck compound relatively late stage after cerebral embolic model, which induces severe learning and memory dysfunction and poststroke depression-like behavior, can affect the level of angiogenic factors. The changes in angiogenesis at a longer period of time after

the induction of ischemia may be associated with the improvement of learning dysfunction and depression-like behaviors. Therefore, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in this study, we investigated whether the intravenous injection of NPCs on day 7 after a cerebral embolism would facilitate angiogenesis. We did so by examining the expression of VEGF/Flk1 and Ang1/Tie2, either or both of which might be expected to promote angiogenesis. Materials and Methods Model of microsphere-induced cerebral

embolism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in rats Male Wistar rats weighing 220–250 g (Charles River Japan, Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) were used. The rats were maintained at 23 ± 1°C in a room with a constant humidity of 55 ± 5% and a light cycle of 12-h light:12-h darkness. The rats had free access to food and water according to the National Institute of Health Guide for the Care Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Guidance for Experimental Animal Care issued by the Prime Minister’s Office of Japan. The study was approved by the Committee of Animal Care and Welfare of Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences. Microsphere-induced cerebral embolism (ME) was performed by the method described previously (Mochizuki et al. 2008). After rats AV-951 had been anesthetized by 40 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital, the right external carotid and pterygopalatine arteries were temporarily occluded with strings. Immediately, a needle connected to a polyethylene catheter (TORAY Feeding Tube, Chiba, Japan) was inserted into the right common carotid artery, and then 700 microspheres (45.0 μm in diameter; Polysciences, Inc., Warrington, PA), suspended in 20% dextran solution, were injected into the right internal carotid artery through the cannula.

64 to 0 95:Eo=KpEpan(1)Energy balance, mass and momentum transfer

64 to 0.95:Eo=KpEpan(1)Energy balance, mass and momentum transfer find protocol methods require measurement and estimation of several parameters and coefficients. The energy balance method requires input data of net radiation, sensible heat flux and change of energy storage in the lake. Mass transfer and momentum transfer methods need differences in specific humidity, wind speed at different heights and mass and momentum coefficients. Combination methods as the Penman and Penman-Monteith methods are input parameter intensive. The Penman-Monteith method input requirements include measured parameters solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure. The method also requires derived parameters air density, canopy resistance, aerodynamic resistance, vapor pressure deficit, psychrometric constant, slope of saturation vapor pressure curve and heat storage.

Additionally, estimated parameters as stomatal resistance, leaf area index, cover height, displacement height, aerodynamic roughness, momentum roughness height and heat capacity are needed for vegetated surfaces. Radiation and temperature based methods are less input data demanding.Lysimeter Study of Wetland Evapotranspiration and Open Water EvaporationA two-year lysimeter study of evapotranspiration in three wetland environments (cattails, mixed vegetation marsh, and open water/algae) was conducted in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project, a constructed wetland in south Florida (26�� 38�� N, 80�� 25�� W), USA. The study was conducted between 1993 and 1996 [16-20].

Figure 1 shows cattail, mixed vegetation, and open water lysimeters in the Everglades Nutrient Removal constructed wetland. The design of the lysimeter system is presented in Abtew and Hardee [21]. The results of the study were applied to test and calibrate six evapotranspiration estimation models: Penman-Monteith, Penman-Combination, Priestly-Taylor, Modified Turc, Radiation/Tmax, and Radiation (Simple) methods. It was indicated that the outputs from the Simple method was comparable to the observed potential evapotranspiration in the three different experimental studies. The Simple Method required a single measured parameter and achieved comparable performance to the complex methods with numerous input requirements.Figure 1.Automated lysimeters in three surface covers (a) cattails, (b) mixed marsh and (c) open water.2.?Methodology2.1. The Simple or Abtew MethodInput data requirements increase from the Simple Method to the Penman-Monteith Method. In South Florida, most of the variance (73 percent) in daily evapotranspiration is explained by solar radiation alone. The effect of humidity and wind speed in estimating ET is relatively minimal.