However, Young’s modulus is independent of the applied load when the load is above 10 mN . Moreover, the contact depths in nanostructured samples indented at the lowest peak loads are already equal to or larger than the average grain size, and thus, Young’s modulus does not show any variation with increasing applied load . In order to compare the hardness and modulus of our nanostructured transparent ceramics with those of conventional large-grained ceramics, we averaged the hardness and modulus data shown in Figure 4. The average hardness and modulus are 31.7 and
314 GPa, respectively. Our average hardness is approximately twice that of large-grained (100 to 200 μm) MgAl2O4. This is understandable since the well-known Hall–Petch relationship predicts that a material with a smaller grain size should be harder than the Lenvatinib cell line same material with a larger grain size. Both the average selleck chemicals modulus (314 GPa) and the modulus (265 GPa) measured at the maximum load (9,000 μN) are comparable to the Young’s modulus (277 GPa) of large-grained (100 to 200 μm) MgAl2O4. This is also reasonable since it has been predicted that  the difference in Young’s modulus between porosity-free nanostructured materials with a grain size larger than 10 nm and conventional large-grained materials should be within approximately 5%. Conclusion In summary, the deformation behavior and the mechanical
properties (hardness and Young’s modulus) of the nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics have been determined by nanoindentation tests. The degree of plastic deformation increases with increasing applied loads. After the indentation test, scanning probe microscope image shows no cracking, whereas high-resolution TEM image shows the evidence of dislocation activity in nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics. The measured hardness is much higher than that of conventional large-grained MgAl2O4 ceramics, which should be of considerable interest to the fields of materials science and condensed matter. Acknowledgments This work was check details supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of the People’s Republic of China
under grant no. 50272040, Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation under grant no. 91046, Youth Foundation of Science and Technology of Sichuan Province under grant no. 03ZQ026-03, NSFC of the People’s Republic of China under grant no. 50742046, NSFC of the People’s Republic of China under grant no. 50872083, and Doctor Foundation of Ludong MK-0518 in vivo University under grant no. LY2012019. We thank T.D. Shen for his technical assistance in preparing our manuscript. References 1. Wang C, Zhao Z: Transparent MgAl 2 O 4 ceramic produced by spark plasma sintering. Scripta Mater 2009, 61:193–196.CrossRef 2. Zhang X, Wang Z, Hu P, Han WB, Hong C: Mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of ZrB 2 –SiC ceramic toughened with graphite flake and SiC whiskers. Scripta Mater 2009, 61:809–812.CrossRef 3.