05) decreased aortic SBP (similar to 10 mm Hg), DBP (similar to 5

05) decreased aortic SBP (similar to 10 mm Hg), DBP (similar to 5 mm Hg), PP (similar to 5 mm Hg), AP (similar to 5 mm Hg), Alx (similar to 10%) and TTI (similar to 311 mm Hg s per minute), while increased muscle strength (similar to 9%) compared with no changes after control. Changes in AP and leg muscle strength were correlated (r= -0.58, P=0.02). Our data demonstrated that WBVET reduced pressure wave reflection magnitude

and aortic blood pressure Autophagy inhibitor in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. Our study suggests that WBVET may decrease cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women by improving wave reflection and muscle strength.”
“Silicon particle detectors made on Czochralski and float zone silicon materials were irradiated with 7 and 9 MeV protons at a temperature of 220 K. During the irradiations, the detectors were biased up to their operating voltage. Specific values for the fluence and flux of the irradiation were found to cause a sudden breakdown in the detectors. We studied the limits of the fluence and the flux in the breakdown as well as the behavior of the detector

response function under high flux irradiations. The breakdown was shown to be an edge effect. Additionally, the buildup of an oxide charge is suggested to lead to an www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html increased localized electric field, which in turn triggers a charge carrier multiplication. Furthermore, we studied the influences of the type of silicon material and the configuration of the detector guard rings. (C)

2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3262611]“
“Study objective: Recruitment to clinical trials is a challenging but essential activity in emergency medicine. Conventional fixed-sample trials may continue to recruit patients after efficacy has been demonstrated or when further recruitment is futile. Adaptive trials make use of emerging information to modify aspects of a trial or terminate it prematurely, potentially resulting in savings in terms of sample size, time, and cost. We aim to use sequential testing procedures to reanalyze data from a fixed-sample trial, the Randomised Assessment of Treatment Using Panel Assay of Cardiac Markers (RATPAC) trial, and investigate the potential for adaptive designs to reduce unnecessary recruitment.\n\nMethods: DZNeP cost The trial was reanalyzed with a triangular group sequential design, with interim analyses planned every 3 months. Patients were analyzed in the order in which they entered the original trial.\n\nResults: We found that the RATPAC trial could potentially have stopped 1 year earlier, with 722 patients enrolled compared with 2,243 patients in the original trial, making a potential saving of approximately $390,000. Estimates of effect were similar, and the qualitative conclusions of the original and group sequential RATPAC trials were in agreement.

“Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are caused by congenital de

“Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are caused by congenital deficiency of factor VIII and factor IX, respectively, and may lead to recurrent, spontaneous bleeding into the muscles and joints resulting in disabling arthropathy. Effective management

is available in the form of prophylactic infusions of clotting factor concentrates which have been demonstrated to prevent bleeding BIX 01294 in vivo episodes and greatly improve the quality of life of these patients. Prophylaxis is, however, expensive. Usual dosing regimens rely on weight based calculations but dosing with an understanding of an individual’s pharmacokinetic response has been demonstrated to be more effective in predicting clotting factor levels that protect against bleeding episodes. Standard pharmacokinetic studies require a prohibitive number of time sampling points but recent population or Bayesian pharmacokinetics

can be used to provide an accurate estimation of an individual’s pharmacokinetic response using a limited number of sampling time points. The use of population pharmacokinetics has the potential to greatly selleckchem increase the use of pharmacokinetic dosing regimens and optimize the use of clotting factor concentrates in patients with hemophilia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 60: S27S29. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We pattern submicrometer structures of thin films of permalloy in the form of two crossing ellipses and in the form of one long ellipse crossed by several ellipses where the width of the ellipses varies between 100 and 1000 nm. We find that the crossing area has two stable axes of magnetization, which are perpendicular to each other and which are rotated by 45 degrees relative to the axes of the ellipses. We measure the planar Hall effect (PHE) of 5-Fluoracil research buy the

submicrometer structures and demonstrate sharp switching behavior between the two easy axes of the magnetization. The observed behavior is modeled analytically with bi-axial magnetic anisotropy and compared with numerical simulations. We discuss possible application of such submicrometer structures for PHE-based magnetic memory. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3677885]“
“The prevalence of obesity in patients with haemophilia (PWH) is increasing. We investigated the effect of obesity on bleeding frequency and clotting factor concentrate (CFC) usage in PWH and assessed whether prothrombotic changes observed in obesity differ between controls and PWH. Number of bleeds and CFC usage were compared between obese (N=51) and non-obese (N=46) haemophilia A patients. Markers of haemostasis and fibrinolysis were compared between PWH, and gender-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-haemophilic controls (N=91). Median number of bleeds/patient-month was comparable between obese and non-obese patients with severe haemophilia (P=0.791). Obese patients with severe haemophilia used 1.4 times more CFC/patient-month than non-obese patients (P=0.036). When adjusting for weight this difference disappeared (P=0.451).

“Purpose of reviewThis review describes the most recen

“Purpose of review\n\nThis review describes the most recent advances in epidemiology, classification, genetics, pathology and treatment of essential tremor. In addition, recent advances in more rare forms of tremor are SB203580 chemical structure summarized.\n\nRecent findings\n\nClinical, biochemical, pathological and imaging studies suggest an abnormal functioning of the cerebellum in essential tremor. Minor changes of cognition and personality may be due to secondary effects. Dementia and possible shortened life span

seem to be limited to late-onset essential tremor. Many of these issues are not yet finally settled and need confirmation in further studies. The current essential tremor classification seems not to reflect the variety of phenotypic expressions. Regarding treatment, there is now a level B evidence for topiramate. Levetiracetam may induce a positive response in Holmes tremor, but is ineffective in orthostatic tremor.\n\nSummary\n\nThese findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. FDA approved Drug Library manufacturer Recent treatments have remained unchanged.”
“Intensified chemotherapy is one of the strategies currently used in the treatment of children with metastatic Ewing sarcoma.

However, the increasing dose intensity has not significantly improved the event-free survival. We report a patient who initially presented with localized Ewing sarcoma and later developed

metastatic disease that required dose-intensified chemotherapy. The patient’s Ewing sarcoma remained refractory to treatment despite continuous intensified chemotherapy and was complicated by a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 abnormality. Examination of bone marrow at the last clinical follow up demonstrated both acute myeloid leukemia and residual metastatic Ewing sarcoma.”
“Objectives To create user-friendly search filters with high sensitivity, specificity, and precision to identify articles on geriatric medicine in Medline.\n\nDesign A diagnostic test assessment framework was used. A reference set of AZD8931 datasheet 2255 articles was created by hand-searching 22 biomedical journals in Medline, and each article was labeled as ‘relevant’, ‘not relevant’, or ‘possibly relevant’ for geriatric medicine. From the relevant articles, search terms were identified to compile different search strategies. The articles retrieved by the various search strategies were compared with articles from the reference set as the index test to create the search filters.\n\nMeasures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated by comparing the results retrieved by the different search strategies with the reference set.\n\nResults The most sensitive search filter had a sensitivity of 94.8%, a specificity of 88.7%, a precision of 73.0%, and an accuracy of 90.2%.

Conclusions FZD6 belongs to a family of proteins that serve a

\n\nConclusions FZD6 belongs to a family of proteins that serve as receptors in Wnt signalling pathways, and has been shown to act as a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling cascade and a positive regulator of the noncanonical Wnt or planar cell polarity pathway. The present results therefore suggest that FZD6 plays a pivotal role in the growth and guidance of the nail plate in humans by acting as a molecular switch between different Wnt pathways. Previous studies have identified mutations in the RSPO4 and LMX1B components of the Wnt pathway GSI-IX ic50 in patients with the hypoplastic nail disorders anonychia and nail-patella syndrome, respectively. Only recently, FZD6

mutations were identified in isolated nail dysplasia. The present results emphasize the important role of the Wnt pathways in nail development buy LY3039478 and increase understanding of Wnt-mediated developmental events in general.”

facilitate routine laboratories in the effective diagnosis of brucellosis, we report a robust and rapid multiplex PCR assay, which allows for the differentiation of all nine currently recognised Brucella species. This includes the recently described species B. microti, B. inopinata, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents a heterogeneous disease with a very variable outcome. The reliable prognosis of this disease at the time of initial diagnosis is difficult to predict. The purpose of this preliminary study was to utilize the nucleolar morphology and to investigate the incidence of main nucleolar types in leukemic lymphocytes in B-CLL patients to assess their possible predictive value for the disease outcome, in correlation this website with immunophenotype parameters.

The evaluation of nucleolar morphology of pathologic lymphocytes was performed at diagnosis and during the course of disease. Median follow up period of patients was 16.4 months (range from 2 to 32 months) from diagnosis. The nucleoli were visualized by a simple cytochemical demonstration of RNA and the proportion of main nucleolar types in pathologic lymphocyte population infiltrating bone marrow of 84 patients suffering from B-CLL was analyzed. The presence of ring shaped and compact nucleoli in leukemic lymphocytes divided patients into two subgroups with different outcome of the disease. Malignant lymphocytes of the majority of patients (Group 1,71 patients, 84.5%) mostly contained ring shaped nucleoli. These patients were in stable phase and did not require any treatment during the follow up. The population of leukemic cells of a small group of B-CLL patients (Group 2, 13 patients, 15.4%) was characterized by the presence of various proportions of pathologic lymphocytes with one large compact nucleolus.

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success.”
“Objective: To compare the long-term outcomes of surgical resection

and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).\n\nSummary Background Data: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising, emerging therapy for small HCC. Whether it is as effective as surgical resection (RES) for long-term outcomes is still indefinite.\n\nMethods: Two hundred thirty HCC patients who met the Milan criteria and were suitable to be treated by either RES or RFA entered into a randomized controlled trial. The patients were regularly followed up after treatment for 5 years (except for those who died). The primary end point was overall survival; the secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, overall recurrence, and early-stage recurrence.\n\nResults: selleck chemicals llc The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year overall survival rates for the RFA group and the RES group were 86.96%, 76.52%, 69.57%,

66.09%, 54.78% and 98.26%, 96.52%, 92.17%, 82.60%, 75.65%, respectively. The corresponding recurrence-free survival click here rates for the 2 groups were 81.74%, 59.13%, 46.08%, 33.91%, 28.69% and 85.22%, 73.92%, 60.87%, 54.78%, 51.30%, respectively. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were significantly lower in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.017). The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall recurrence rates were 16.52%, 38.26%, 49.57%, 59.13%, and 63.48% for the RFA group and 12.17%, 22.60%, 33.91%, 39.13%, and 41.74% for the RES group. The overall recurrence was higher in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.024).\n\nConclusions: Surgical Dorsomorphin resection may

provide better survival and lower recurrence rates than RFA for patients with HCC to the Milan criteria.”
“Background In the past three decades, the role of pharmacists has evolved toward working with other health professionals and the public in a patient-centered model of practice, which is called pharmaceutical care. This model has been implemented for most physical illnesses but in relation to mental health, pharmacists’ role is still evolving. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes, current practice, perceived barriers and training needs concerning pharmaceutical care for people with depression. Setting All pharmacists attending obligatory regional meetings of the Surplus Network (a Flemish community pharmacy chain) during April and May 2009. Method Written survey consisting of questions on (1) pharmacists’ attitude and current practice in depression care and pharmaceutical care for people with other illnesses; (2) potential barriers in providing pharmaceutical care for people with depression; and (3) training needs. Paired samples T tests and Wilcoxon-tests were used to analyze the data.

Other less common causes

are hereditary endotheliopathy w

Other less common causes

are hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, neuropathy and strokes (HERNS), cerebro-retinian vasculopathy (CRV), hereditary vascular retinopathy buy SN-38 (HVR) (all three linked to 3p21.1-p21.3), hereditary infantile hemiparesis with arteriolar retinopathy and leukoencephalopathy (HIHRATL) (not linked to 3p21), fibromuscular dysplasia, and moya-moya disease. Lack of uniformity of clinical manifestations, the variety of vascular diseases and circulatory factors, the diverse, but often convergent, neuropathological substrates, and the common association with unrelated neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly, make it hard to assume a single clinical approach in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin. Rather, environmental and genetic risk factors, underlying vascular diseases, associated systemic, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases and identification of extent and distribution of lesions

with morphological and functional neuroimaging methods should be applied in every individual patient. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The title compound, C(18)H(26)O(7), is an eremophilenolide which has been isolated from the plant Ligularia duciformis for the first time. The present study confirms the atomic connectivity assigned on the basis of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The molecule contains three fused rings, two six-membered rings in chair LY2606368 ic50 confomations and a five-membered ring in a flattened envelope conformation. Two hydroxy groups are involved in formation of intra- and intermolecular O-H…O hydrogen bonds.

The latter ones link molecules into chains propagating in [010].”
“The aim of the study was to assess the immunohistochemical (IHC) profiles of SRC3, Pax2, ER, PgR, Her2, EGFR, CK5/6, and Ki67 proteins in breast-cancer brain metastasis. The study utilized tumor samples from 30 metastatic patients and calculated correlations between all IHC variables. In fourteen cases, primary breast cancers paired with secondary deposits were analyzed. We evaluated STI571 in vivo the association between IHC status in the primary and secondary deposits, grade, and histotype of the tumors. The examination of the metastatic deposits in all 30 patients resulted in positive detection in the following cases: SRC3 in 20 cases (66.6%), Pax2 in 22 (73.3%), ER in 22 (73.3%), PgR in 25 (83.3%), Her2 in 10 (33.3%), EGFR in 12 (40%), CK5/6 in 7 (23.3%), and Ki67 in 23 (76.6%). Grade 2 was found in 13.3% of all patients, and grade 3 in 86.7%. SRC3 and Pax2 were positive in both G2 and G3. Invasive lobular carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma were diagnosed in 23.3% and 76.7% of cases, respectively.

Raman spectra of charge-transfer salts formed by Cp2Mo(dmit)

Raman spectra of charge-transfer salts formed by Cp2Mo(dmit) JQ1 mw with various anions (Br-, BF4(-), PF6-, SbF6-, ReO(dmit)(2)(-), TCNQF(4)(-)) were measured at room temperature using

red (632.8 nm) and near-infrared (780 nm) excitations. The influence of the folding of the MoS2C2 metallacycle in [Cp2Mo(dmit)](+center dot) cation on the Raman spectra was investigated. Due to folding of [Cp2Mo(dmit)](+center dot), the bands related to the C=C and some C-S stretching vibrations shift toward lower wavenumbers by about 0.5-0.6 cm(-1) deg(-1). The bond lengths, charge distribution on atoms, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, and dipole moments for

neutral and ionized complex with various folding angles were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) methods. Additionally, the normal vibrational modes and theoretical Raman spectra were calculated and compared with experimental data. Our results indicate that vibrational spectroscopy can be applied for investigation of complex deformations in the solid state. Copyright (C) buy Nirogacestat 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Full-length antibodies have captured a significant fraction of the sales volume and value of the biopharmaceuticals market. With increasing knowledge, however, it has been recognized that full-length antibodies may not always be necessary or even desirable.

Antibody fragments provide the opportunity for new therapeutic possibilities. Moreover, antibody fragments have the potential for simpler, high-yielding production processes, which can translate into a lower manufacturing cost-of-goods and extended therapeutic benefit. This article discusses the structure and production strategies available for various types of antibody fragment therapeutics.”
“Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning SB203580 mw urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05).

During a median follow-up of 46 months, 13 patients (17 %) reache

During a median follow-up of 46 months, 13 patients (17 %) reached the composite end point. At baseline, patients with and without events showed comparable values of LV longitudinal strain at the infarct, border, and remote zones. However, at three months’ follow-up, patients with events showed significantly more impaired longitudinal strain at the border zone (-6.8 +/- 3.1 % vs. -10.5 +/- 4.9 %, P = 0.002), whereas LVEF was comparable (28 +/- 6 % vs. 31 +/- 4 %, P = 0.09). The median three-month LV longitudinal strain at the border zone was -9.4 %. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated

that three-month longitudinal strain bigger than -9.4 % at the border zone was independently associated with the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.94, 95 % confidence interval 1.05-14.70; P = 0.04). In conclusion, regional longitudinal strain at the border zone three months post-STEMI is associated with BKM120 price appropriate ICD G418 mw therapy and cardiac mortality.”

RA, Vijayan A, Johnson AC. Proximal tubule haptoglobin gene activation is an integral component of the acute kidney injury “stress response”. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303: F139-F148, 2012. First published May 9, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajprenal. 00168.2012.-Haptoglobin (Hp) synthesis occurs almost exclusively in liver, and it is rapidly upregulated in response to stress. Because many of the pathways that initiate hepatic Hp synthesis are also operative during acute kidney injury (AKI), we tested whether AKI activates the renal cortical Hp gene. CD-1 mice were subjected to six diverse AKI models: ischemia-reperfusion, glycerol injection, cisplatin nephrotoxicity, myoglobinuria, endotoxemia, and find more bilateral ureteral obstruction. Renal cortical Hp gene

induction was determined either 4-72 h or 1-3 wk later by measuring Hp mRNA and protein levels. Relative renal vs. hepatic Hp gene induction during endotoxemia was also assessed. Each form of AKI induced striking and sustained Hp mRNA increases, leading to similar to 10- to 100-fold renal Hp protein elevations (ELISA; Western blot). Immunohistochemistry, and isolated proximal tubule assessments, indicated that the proximal tubule was the dominant (if not only) site of the renal Hp increases. Corresponding urinary and plasma Hp elevations were surrogate markers of this response. Endotoxemia evoked 25-fold greater Hp mRNA increases in kidney vs. liver, indicating marked renal Hp gene reactivity. Clinical relevance of these findings was suggested by observations that urine samples from 16 patients with established AKI had statistically higher (similar to 12x) urinary Hp levels than urine samples from either normal subjects or from 15 patients with chronic kidney disease. These AKI-associated urinary Hp increases mirrored those seen for urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipoprotein, a well accepted AKI biomarker gene.

The purpose of this review is

to discuss new approaches t

The purpose of this review is

to discuss new approaches to immunosuppression, which may address the long-term outcomes after transplant. Recent findings Recent findings in clinical trials have shown that proliferation signal inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors can reduce the incidence and severity of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and are used in higher doses as anticancer agents, but their uses are associated with side-effects. Summary see more Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing newer immunosuppressive agents that will be more effective in treating and preventing these long-term complications with fewer side-effects. At present, there are no new agents other than Rituximab, which

are being studied, in clinical trials.”
“Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating Selleckchem GSK690693 the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms

can serve as a model for future Etomoxir clinical trial investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into the neuronal cell lineage. Here, we describe the highly efficient and specific induction of cells with neuronal characteristics, without glial differentiation, from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by NRSF silencing. Cells that have the characteristics of MSCs were obtained from human bone marrow. Lentiviral vectors were used to deliver small interference NRSF RNA (siNRSF) into MSCs. After being infected with lentivirus containing siNRSF, MSCs were successfully induced to differentiate into neuronal cells, which exhibited neuron-like morphology and formed nissl bodies.

For this species we are resurrecting from synonymy Paramycetophyl

For this species we are resurrecting from synonymy Paramycetophylax Kusnezov, 1956 (Mycetophylax bruchi as type species,

by original designation, with M. cristulatus as its new synonym). Myrmicocrypta emeryi Forel, 1907 is the only attine in which females lack the median clypeal seta and have the antennal insertion areas very much enlarged and anteriorly produced, with the psammophore Selleck GNS-1480 setae arising from the middle of the clypeus and not at its anterior margin as in Paramycetophylax. Notwithstanding its inclusion in Mycetophylax by recent authors, it is here recognized as belonging to a hitherto undescribed, thus far monotypic genus, Kalathomyrmex new genus (Myrmicocrypta emeryi as its type species, here designated). We redescribe workers, gynes and males of all species in the three genera and describe for the first time gynes of Mycetophylax conformis and M. simplex, males of M. simplex and M. morschi, and gynes of P. bruchi. Furthermore we present a key to the workers of the taxa treated here (most formerly included under the name Mycetophylax), a key to workers of the Mycetophylax KU 57788 in the revised sense, SEM pictures and high resolution AutoMontage(C) photographs of the species, along with maps of collection records and a

summary of biological observations.”
“Accurate knowledge of vital anatomical structures, such as the inferior alveolar nerve, mental nerve, and mental foramen, is critical to achieve favorable results during oral surgical procedures

and dental implant placement. Although uncommon, variations in mandibular foramina have been reported and if unnoticed and, as a result, injured, may lead to patient morbidity, neurosensory disturbances, and other undesired complications. We present a case report of identification of an accessory mandibular foramen (AMF) Barasertib nmr encountered during placement of 2 dental implants for a mandibular implant-retained overdenture and demonstrate appropriate management. In addition, we propose a more reasonable terminology for such accessory foramina so as to facilitate communication through common terminology among health care providers. As conventional radiography (periapical and panoramic films) may not allow for proper identification of such anatomical variations, cone-beam computed tomography may be useful in the diagnosis of AMF during treatment planning of dental implants in the mandible.”
“The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients taking an antiplatelet agent is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between antiplatelet agent use before admission with the risk of in-hospital VTE in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU at a Level I trauma center over 30 months was performed.