“Background: Retinal detachment with inferior proliferativ

“Background: Retinal detachment with inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a difficult to treat problem. The aim of our study was to assess the safety

EVP4593 mouse and efficacy of Densiron in the clinical management of complicated retinal detachment.\n\nHistory and Signs: 6 eyes of 6 consecutive patients presenting with a retinal detachment with inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade 3 were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and injection of Densiron. The mean age of the patients was 61 years. 3 patients had a previous unsuccessful vitreoretinal surgery and 3 patients had Densiron as a first procedure. The extent of detachment was at least 2 or more quadrants with macular involvement in 3 cases. Preoperatively the mean visual acuity was 29.2 letters with ETDRS.\n\nTherapy and Outcome: Densiron was removed after an average of 58 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0994.html days. 5 patients achieved retinal re-attachment without further tamponade, and 1 patient after additional injection of conventional silicon oil. 4 – 6 weeks after removal of Densiron the mean visual acuity was 50.2 letters with ETDRS. The most common complication was an elevated intraocular pressure during endotamponade, which resolved

following removal of the agent.\n\nConclusions: Densiron improves inferior tamponade, and in clinical practice may be considered to increase the anatomic success rate in selected cases of complicated retinal detachment with inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy.”
“The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a source

of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation learn more or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e. g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog). Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e. g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST), which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e. g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression.

HBV carriers were recruited from

individuals who were reg

HBV carriers were recruited from

individuals who were regularly followed-up at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology outpatient clinic of our setting due to inactivity in HBV infection The control group was recruited from the same outpatient clinic among patients who had a diagnosis of chronic HBV infection and who were not undergoing active treatment yet Both groups were requested to fill in the short form 36 questionnaire on HRQOL (HRQOL-SF-36) and a form to gather data about age, gender, and education. We also compared the mean values of the SF-36 domain scores of these 2 groups with published scores of healthy controls derived from the Turkish population\n\nResults: QOL in HBV carriers was greatly similar to that of patients with chronic HBV JNK-IN-8 concentration GW786034 research buy disease except for physical role limitation scores and both HBV carriers and patients with chronic disease had lower HRQOL. than the normal Turkish population\n\nConclusion: When compared with the normal Turkish population, QOL is affected negatively both in chronic HBV infection

patients and in HBV carriers.”
“Purpose: To describe a presentation of painless posterior scleritis.\n\nMethods: This study was an interventional case report. An 18-year-old boy was admitted to the authors’ clinic with symptoms of low degree of vision and no ocular pain. Ophthalmologic examination, ocular ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), thoracic radiography, abdominal sonography, and laboratory testing were carried out and the results were evaluated.\n\nResults: OCT revealed bilateral exudative

retinal detachment. Diffuse bilateral posterior scleral thickening and serous retinal detachment were found in B-scan ultrasonography, suggesting posterior scleritis. Laboratory findings and imaging disclosed no systemic disease. The patient responded to oral prednisolone find more 60 mg once daily.\n\nConclusions: The case reported here indicates that pain is not always present in posterior scleritis.”
“Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics studies often require handling of both identified and unidentified metabolite data. In order to avoid bias in data interpretation, it would be of advantage for the data analysis to include all available data. A practical challenge in exploratory metabolomics analysis is therefore how to interpret the changes related to unidentified peaks. In this paper, we address the challenge by predicting the class membership of unknown peaks by applying and comparing multiple supervised classifiers to selected lipidomics datasets.

Our a-priori hypothesis was that

Our a-priori hypothesis was that BMS-345541 order schizophrenia patients would show an increased prevalence of the nontaster phenotype compared with controls. The genotypes of two nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 were assayed for 176 schizophrenia patients and 229 healthy control individuals, and the two-allele haplotypes were estimated. There was an over-representation of the major PTC nontaster haplotype among patients of European descent, relative to control individuals of similar ancestry.

Patients and controls of African ancestry did not differ. The PTC nontaster haplotype is a genetic marker that may be used to identify subsets of schizophrenia patients who potentially harbor vulnerability genes in this region of chromosome 7q. Psychiatr Genet 22:286-289 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Chagas disease is a major endemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasitic disease is widely distributed throughout Latin America, affecting 10 million people. There are also reports of canine infection in the southern part of the United States. Dogs are considered the predominant domestic reservoir for 7: cruzi in many

areas of endemicity. In Mexico, TGF-beta inhibitor dog infection by this parasite has been poorly studied. In this work 209 dogs from six villages in Jalisco, Mexico, were assessed to detect anti-T cruzi antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. Seventeen (17) seropositive dogs (8.1 %) were detected by both tests, representing a seropositive value similar to that found in some southern states of Mexico where the infection is present. No statistical differences were observed concerning the age and sex of infected and non-infected dogs. The major antigens recognized by positive sera were 26, 32, 66 and 80 kDa. These proteins are candidates to develop a specific diagnostic method for canine Chagas.

No antibodies against HSP16 protein were found in 7: cruzi seropositive sera. This is the first report of canine serology of Chagas disease in this central part of Mexico. This report will contribute to the knowledge of the infection status of domestic reservoirs in selleck chemicals the state of Jalisco, Mexico. (C) 2014 Asociacion Argentina de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Slug, a regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition, was identified to be differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using cDNA microarrays by our laboratory. This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Slug overexpression in ESCC and determine its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis for ESCC patients.

Activity of the nanocomposites for degradation of methylene blue

Activity of the nanocomposites for degradation of methylene blue was evaluated under UV irradiation. The degradation rate constant on Ag (3.4 wt%)/ZnMgO FK866 molecular weight nanocomposite is about 11.2, 4.7 and 9.6-fold greater than those of ZnO, ZnMgO and Ag (3.4 wt%)/ZnO photocatalysts, respectively. In addition, influence of various operational parameters on the degradation rate constant was investigated and the results were discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infections can

lead to significant losses to the swine industry by causing reproductive failure in pigs. Germacrone has been reported to efficiently suppress the replication Ilomastat ic50 of influenza virus. In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent

manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy.”
“Polyketides are a diverse class of medically important natural products whose biosynthesis is catalysed by polyketide synthases (PKSs), in a fashion highly analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis. In modular PKSs, the polyketide chain is assembled by the successive condensation of activated carboxylic acid-derived units, where chain extension occurs with the intermediates remaining covalently bound to the enzyme, with the growing polyketide tethered to an acyl carrier domain (ACP). Carboxylated acyl-CoA precursors serve as activated donors that are selected by the acyltransferase domain (AT) providing extender units that are added to the growing chain by condensation catalysed by

the ketosynthase domain (KS). The action of ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) activities can result in unreduced, partially reduced, or fully reduced centres within the polyketide chain depending www.selleckchem.com/products/Ispinesib-mesilate(SB-715992).html on which of these enzymes are present and active. The PKS-catalysed assembly process generates stereochemical diversity, because carbon-carbon double bonds may have either cis- or trans- geometry, and because of the chirality of centres bearing hydroxyl groups (where they are retained) and branching methyl groups (the latter arising from use of propionate extender units). This review shall cover the studies that have determined the stereochemistry in many of the reactions involved in polyketide biosynthesis by modular PKSs.”
“Background and aims: Periconception folic acid supplementation may influence early placentation processes and thereby the occurrence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders.

On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined fro

On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the check details 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy

to control selleckchem coccidiosis in broiler chickens.”
“Heterozygous mutations in PMS2 are involved in Lynch syndrome, whereas biallelic mutations are found in Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome patients. Mutation detection is complicated by the occurrence of sequence exchange events between the duplicated regions of PMS2 and PMS2CL. We investigated the frequency of such events with a nonspecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy, coamplifying both PMS2 and PMS2CL sequences. This allowed us to score ratios

between gene and pseudogene-specific nucleotides at 29 PSV sites from exon 11 to the end of the gene. We found sequence transfer at all investigated PSVs from intron 12 to the 3′ end of the gene in 4 to 52% of DNA samples. Overall, sequence exchange Blebbistatin molecular weight between PMS2 and PMS2CL was observed in 69% (83/120) of individuals. We demonstrate that mutation scanning with PMS2-specific PCR primers and MLPA probes, designed on PSVs, in the 3′ duplicated region is unreliable, and present an RNA-based mutation detection strategy to improve reliability. Using this strategy, we found 19 different putative pathogenic PMS2 mutations. Four of these (21%) are lying in the region with frequent sequence transfer and are missed or called incorrectly as homozygous with

several PSV-based mutation detection methods. Hum Mutat 31:578-587, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“To investigate nuclear lamina re-assembly in vivo, Drosophila A-type and B-type lamins were artificially expressed in Drosophila lamin Dm(0) null mutant brain cells. Both exogenous lamin C (A-type) and Dm(0) (B-type) formed sub-layers at the nuclear periphery, and efficiently reverted the abnormal Clustering of the NPC. Lamin C initially appeared where NPCs were clustered, and subsequently extended along the nuclear periphery accompanied by the recovery of the regular distribution of NPCs. In contrast, lamin Dm(0) did not show association with the clustered NPCs during lamina formation and NPC spacing recovered only after completion of a closed lamin Dm(0) layer. Further, when lamin Dm(0) and C were both expressed, they did not co-polymerize, initiating layer formation in separate regions.

The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally opt

The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The calculated state energies are compared with the available experimental data. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3698584]“
“Purpose: To determine the rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy.\n\nMethods: The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed.\n\nResults:

The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45-73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable E1 Activating inhibitor mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered

until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy. Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine selleckchem patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct and resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids, including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was Kinase Inhibitor Library datasheet discovered during the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy either concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6-96 months). In

10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow up.\n\nConclusions: With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas.”
“Objective: To investigate experimentally the time dependent changes of latency, amplitude, threshold of neural response in injured rat facial nerve in a nerve-crush trauma model.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g (12-16 week), were grouped for permanent and transient nerve injury during time course analysis of electrophysiological changes at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd and 6th months.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an ob

\n\nDesign, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an observational study of 15,368 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 111; 5.9% had CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Based on the frequency and intensity of leisure time physical activity obtained by a questionnaire, participants were divided into inactive, insufficiently active, and active groups. Time to mortality was examined in Cox models, taking into account the complex survey design.\n\nResults: Inactivity was present in 13.5% of the non-CKD and 28.0% of the CKD groups (P < 0.001). In two separate multivariable Cox models, compared with the physically inactive group, hazard ratios

(95% selleck inhibitor confidence intervals) of mortality for insufficiently active and active groups were 0.60 (0.45 to 0.81) and 0.59 (0.45 to 0.77) in the non-CKD subpopulation and 0.58 (0.42 to 0.79) and 0.44 (0.33 to 0.58) in the CKD subpopulation. These hazard ratios did not differ significantly between the CKD and non-CKD subpopulations (P > 0.3).\n\nConclusions: Physical inactivity

is associated with increased mortality in CKD and non-CKD populations. AC220 concentration As in the non-CKD population, increased physical activity might have a survival benefit in the CKD population. Clin J Ant Soc Nephrol 4 1901-1906, 2009 doi 10 2215/CJN 01970309″
“We studied the effect of systemic administration of multipotent stem cells on impaired neurological status in rats with brain injury. It was found that transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the bone marrow or human neural stem and progenitor cells

to rats with local brain injury promoted recovery of the brain control over locomotor function and proprioceptive sensitivity of forelegs. The dynamics of neurological recovery was similar after transplantation of fetal neural stem and progenitor cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Transplantation of cell cultures improved survival of experimental animals. It should be noted that administration of neural stem and progenitor cells prevented animal death not only in the acute traumatic period, but also in delayed periods.”
“Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence Flavopiridol and risk factors of anemia among adolescents in Denizli where Mediterranean cuisine (fresh fruit and vegetables) is adopted.\n\nMethods: We accepted hemoglobin values below 12 g/dl for girls and 13 g/dl for boys as the criteria of anemia. We recorded a detailed history including nutritional habits, consumption of animal source foods especially red meat, consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, presence of parasitic infestation, psychosocial status, school success and any materials consumed except ordinary food.\n\nFindings:We investigated the prevalence of anemia in 1120 children (672 girls and 448 boys), aged 12 to 16 years. We found that the overall prevalence of anemia was 5.6%. 8.3% of the girls and 1.

Proteasome inhibition is effective in treating certain forms of c

Proteasome inhibition is effective in treating certain forms of cancer, while UPS dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of many severe and yet common diseases. It has been previously shown that doxorubicin (Dox) enhances the degradation of a UPS surrogate substrate in mouse hearts. To address the underlying mechanism, in the present study, we report that 1) Dox not only enhances the degradation of an exogenous UPS reporter (GFPu) but also antagonizes selleck products the proteasome inhibitor-induced accumulation of endogenous substrates

(e. g., beta-catenin and c-Jun) of the UPS in cultured NIH 3T3 cells and cardiomyocytes; 2) Dox facilitates the in vitro degradation of GFPu and c-Jun by the reconstituted UPS via the enhancement of proteasomal function; 3) Dox at a therapeutically relevant dose directly stimulates the peptidase activities of purified 20S proteasomes; and 4) Dox increases, whereas proteasome inhibition decreases, E3 ligase COOH-terminus of heat shock protein cognate 70 in 3T3 cells via a posttranscriptional mechanism. These new findings suggest that Dox activates the UPS by acting directly on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome.”
“The lipid organization in

the stratum corneum (SC), plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. SC lipids form two lamellar phases with a predominantly orthorhombic packing. In previous publications a lipid model was selleck chemicals llc presented, referred to as the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), that closely mimics the SC lipid organization and barrier function. Therefore, the SCS serves as a unique tool to relate lipid organization with barrier function. In the present study we PXD101 chemical structure examined the effect of the orthorhombic to hexagonal phase transition on the barrier function of human SC and SCS. In addition, the SCS was modified by changing the free fatty acid composition, resulting in a hexagonal packing and perturbed lamellar organization. By measuring the permeability to benzoic

acid as function of temperature, Arrhenius plots were constructed from which activation energies were calculated. The results suggest that the change from orthorhombic to hexagonal packing in human SC and SCS, does not have an effect on the permeability. However, the modified SCS revealed an increased permeability to benzoic acid, which we related to its perturbed lamellar organization. Thus, a proper lamellar organization is more crucial for a competent barrier function than the presence of an orthorhombic lateral packing. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Transcriptional polarity occurs in Escherichia coli when cryptic Rho-dependent transcription terminators become activated as a consequence of reduced translation. Increased spacing between RNA polymerase and the leading ribosome allows the transcription termination factor Rho to bind to mRNA, migrate to the RNA polymerase, and induce termination.

Apidaecin had a double-edged effect: at low concentrations it par

Apidaecin had a double-edged effect: at low concentrations it partially antagonized LPS-stimulatory effects on both macrophages and monocytes

while it stimulated pro-inflammatory and pro-immune functions of macrophages at higher concentrations. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic Alvespimycin purchase kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating

characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, learn more gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary AG-014699 DNA Damage inhibitor nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.”
“Background: Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically) of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during

processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state.\n\nResults: First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT) under controlled humidity conditions.

This work sets the stage for

developing future implantabl

This work sets the stage for

developing future implantable closed-loop neuro-prosthetic devices for restoration of bladder function. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.”
“Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis affecting millions of people worldwide. Due to the inability to cultivate NoVs, current NoV vaccine development relies on bioengineering technologies to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) and other subviral particles of NoVs as subunit vaccines. The first VLP vaccine has reached phase II clinical trials and several others are under development in pre-clinical research. Several subviral complexes made from the protruding (P) domains of NoV capsid share common features of easy production, high stability and high immunogenicity and thus are candidates for low cost vaccines. These P domain complexes can also be used as vaccine platforms to present foreign antigens for potential dual vaccines against NoVs and other pathogens. Fludarabine Development of NoV vaccines also faces other challenges, including genetic diversity of NoVs, limit understanding of NoV immunology and evolution, and lack of an efficient NoV animal model for vaccine assessment, which are discussed in this article.”
“Purpose. To examine the clinical implications of change in choroidal neovascularization

(CNV) size on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy. LY411575 Methods. The charts of subjects with an idiopathic CNV treated by a modified PRN regimen with intravitreal bevacizumab over a 12-month period were retrospectively

reviewed. Results. There were 34 subjects included in the analysis. Baseline CNV sizes of less than 1.0 mm(2) on ICG angiography correlated with complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0404), fewer injections delivered (P = 0.0002), and better Snellen visual acuity (P = 0.0098) at 12 months. Subjects that experienced a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months had complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0047) and fewer injections (P smaller than 0.0001) at 12 months compared to subjects that did not experience a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months. Conclusions. Smaller baseline CNV size on ICG angiography resulted in better visual acuity S63845 mw and fewer injections at 12 months, and a reduction of 33% or more in CNV size after 2 months may predict a better clinical course in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy.”
“Introduction. Modern particle therapy facilities enable sub-millimeter precision in dose deposition. Here, also ionization chambers (ICs) are used, which requires knowledge of the recombination effects. Up to now, recombination is corrected using phenomenological approaches for practical reasons. In this study the effect of the underlying dose distribution on columnar recombination, a quantitative model for initial recombination, is investigated.