Of 467 participants enrolled, 361 (77.3%) completed questionnaires and had sufficient paired pre- and post-travel serum for testing; 58 (12.4%) were lost to follow-up; 21 had insufficient blood for testing; and 27 were excluded. There were 214 females (59.3%) and 147 males (40.7%). Pre- and post-travel specimens were collected at a median of 29 days prior to travel (range 0–265 days) and a median Olaparib molecular weight of 6 days following return to Australia (range 0–31 days). The
median travel duration was 21 days (range 7–326 days) with 74% <30 days. The major reasons for travel were tourism (73.1%), business (17.7%), and visiting friends and relatives (VFRs, 4.71%). Table 1 shows the demographic data and total traveler-days for the top 10 countries visited. Four of the 361 travelers (1.1%) demonstrated serological evidence of HCV infection. Two were past infections and two travelers had evidence of seroconversion, representing an incidence density of 1.8 new infections per 10,000 traveler-days (95% CI: 0.22–6.53). Both travelers with seroconversion were asymptomatic, and likely acquired selleck kinase inhibitor their infection in Vietnam (n = 1) or Thailand (n = 1) during short-term travel (14 days duration each). The traveler to Thailand was a 24-year-old female tourist who visited Koh Samui and Bangkok. The traveler to Vietnam (a 50-year-old male) traveled to the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh. None of the
four HCV seropositive travelers were viremic on testing of either pre- or post-travel sera. Six of the 361 travelers (1.77%) were anti-HBc antibody positive, consistent with evidence of HBV infection. Five of these infections were present before travel. One traveler showed evidence of seroconversion [pre-travel serum negative for anti-HBc immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, anti-HBs, anti-HBe, HBsAg, and HBV DNA; post-travel anti-HBc IgG positive
but IgM negative, anti-HBs positive, HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and HBV DNA negative]. The serological profile was consistent with self-limited primary infection. This traveler, a male aged 40, had evidence of seroconversion consistent with acquisition of HBV during his short business trip to China. He had his pre-travel blood collected 31 days prior to departure, traveled through China for 22 days, and Adenosine triphosphate had post-travel bloods taken 8 days post return to Australia. HBV PCR testing of sera from the entire cohort was negative; 56% of travelers (202/361) were HBV immune (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL). The incidence density of HBV infection in nonimmune travelers was calculated as 2.19 per 10,000 traveler-days (95% CI: 0.07–12.19). This retrospective cohort study demonstrates that travelers are at risk of both HBV and HCV infection, and is the first to quantify the risk of HCV infection in travelers. While the number of seroconversions was small the identification of two HCV and one HBV seroconversion is notable and indicates potential exposure to other blood and bodily fluid-borne infections such as HIV.