Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by NICHD grants R01 HD047242 and HD047242-S1
. The author has no conflicts of interest or necessary disclosures as regards the content of this work.
The goal of this publication is to briefly summarize neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings among adults with traumatic brain selleck chemicals injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and highlight current thinking in the field. Tables have been used to consolidate evidence. The existing data is vast, and complete discussion is outside the purview of this paper. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Readers are encouraged to review publications noted for further discussion of specific areas of interest. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Diagnostically, to have suffered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a TBI one must have experienced an event (eg, motor vehicle accident, fall) which resulted in a structural injur}’ to the brain or a physiological disruption of brain function (eg, alteration of consciousness [AOC],loss of consciousness [LOC]).TBI Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical severity is classified according to the extent of injury to the brain or altered consciousness post-injury, not to the severity of sequelae reported or observed. See Table I for
further information regarding classification of TBI severity. Secondary to a cascade of cellular and molecular events, primary neurological injury associated with a traumatic event can also cause progressive tissue atrophy and related neurological dysfunction. Ultimately, such processes can result in neuronal cell death (secondary brain damage).1 Cellular mechanisms that modulate pathophysiological and neuroprotective processes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical appear to contribute to the nature and extent of
damage postinjury.2 Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), preferential multifocal involvement of myelinated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tracks, often occurs and can be related to the primary injury or secondary brain damage. As the severity of the injury increases, so do findings noted on imaging and neuropsychological measures.3 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1.7 million people per year in the United States sustain a TBI.4 Most injuries incurred by civilians and military personnel are mild in nature.4,5 That is, the associated AOC http://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html immediately following the injury is limited Drug_discovery (eg, LOC less than 30 minutes). Individuals serving in Iraq and Afghanistan arc sustaining TBIs secondary to blast exposure.5 Reported estimates of TBI vary between 8% and 23%.5,6 Blast exposure can result in TBI via multiple mechanisms including: (i) primary blast – injury caused by the overpressurization wave; (ii) secondary blast – injury secondary to object being thrown by the blast towards the person; and (iii) tertiary blast – when individuals are thrown and strike objects.