The samples were obtained in December 2011 All samples (pulp and

The samples were obtained in December 2011. All samples (pulp and

by-products) were freeze-dried at −50 °C under 5 mtorr (9.67× 10−5 psi) vacuum for 48 h in a Labconco Freeze Dry-5 dryer (Labconco, MO). The freeze-dried material Selleckchem JAK inhibitor was stored in a desiccator protected from light until further use. Moisture content was determined for all samples following AOAC method 920.151 (data not shown) (AOAC, 1995). Analyses of anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids were carried out as described by Francis (1982). Briefly, 1 g of each freeze-dried sample was suspended in 10 ml of extraction solution (1.5 N HCl in 85% ethanol). Samples were homogenized, transferred to a 50 ml volumetric flask, and extracted for 13 h under refrigeration in the dark. After this period, the extracts were filtered (Whatman No. 1 filter paper) and absorbance at 535 nm (anthocyanins) and 374 nm (yellow flavonoids) were measured in a Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer (Columbia, MA). The content of anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids were calculated using

Equation 1 and absorption coefficients of 982 and 766 (g/100 ml)−1cm−1, respectively. equation(1) Anthocyaninscontent(mg/100gd.b.)=(ABS×dilutionfactors)×1000(sampledriedweight×ε1cm,5351%)where ABS   is absorbance reading of sample at 535 nm, and ε1cm,5351% is the absorption coefficient for anthocyanins. Yellow flavonoids content was calculated using the same equation with absorbance reading selleck compound at 374 nm and its respective absorption coefficient. β-Carotene and lycopene were extracted and quantified according to the method described by Nagata and Yamashita (1992). Briefly, 1 g of each freeze-dried sample was suspended in 10 ml of extraction solution ((2:3) acetone: hexane) and mixed for 1 min. Samples were filtered (Whatman No. 1) and spectrophotometric readings were obtained at 453, 505, 645, and 663 nm and results Cell press were expressed as μg of β-carotene or lycopene/100 g dry basis (d.b.). Total phenolics content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method (Waterhouse, 2002). First, freeze-dried samples were weighed (10–25 g)

in centrifuge tubes and extracted sequentially with 40 ml of 50% (v/v) ethanol in water solution at room temperature for 1 h. Tubes were centrifuged at 2540 g for 15 min and the supernatant was recovered. Then, 40 ml of 70% (v/v) acetone in water was added to the residue, extracted for 60 min at room temperature, and centrifuged for a second time (2540g for 15 min). Ethanol and acetone extracts were combined, made up to 100 ml with distilled water and used for Folin–Ciocalteu analysis. Extracts (1 ml) were mixed with 1 ml of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (1:3), 2 ml of 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate solution and 2 ml of distilled water. After 1 h, absorbance at 700 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. Results were expressed as gram of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of sample dry basis (GAE/100 g d.b.).

The most abundant ion was that of m/z 901 corresponding either to

The most abundant ion was that of m/z 901 corresponding either to a LLL or OLLn (C54:6) or a mixture of both. Minor [TAG + K]+ ions were also detected: PLLn (m/z 891), PLL (m/z 893), PLO (m/z 895), POO (m/z 897), LLLn or OLnLn (m/z 915), LLL or OLLn (m/z 917), OLL or OOLn (m/z 919), OOL (m/z 921), OOO (m/z 923). Table 4 shows the TAG composition measured by EASI-MS, which corresponds closely to the known composition of the FAs of soybean oil: linoleic (49.7–56.9%), oleic (17.7–26.0%), palmitic (9.9–12.2%), linolenic (5.5–9.5%) and

stearic (3.0–5.4%) acids ( Simas et al., 2010). Fig. 2B shows that the lipase-catalysed acidolysis of soybean oil with Alpelisib chemical structure sardine FFAs resulted in a substantially modified TAG profile. Table 4 summarises the relative intensity of the TAG ions relative to the total intensity of [TAG + Na]+ , before and after acidolysis. As can be observed, the relative intensity of the m/z 847, 873, 925, 927, 929, 943, 945, 947, 949, 953, 955, 957, 969, 973 and 975 ions increased after acidolysis of the soybean oil. These TAG ions can be attributed FLT3 inhibitor to the addition of EPA and DHA in the soybean oil TAG molecule. The most abundant [TAG + Na]+ ions after acidolysis were those

of: m/z 929 (probably SOEPA or PSDHA), m/z 943 (probably LnEPAEPA), m/z 947 (probably LLnDHA) and m/z 973 (probably PDHADHA). A significant incorporation of EPA and DHA into soybean oil using a solvent-free method was successfully

optimised by RSM. Of the variables investigated, the molar ratio between the FAs and the soybean Cyclooxygenase (COX) oil presented the greatest influence on the incorporation of EPA and DHA into the soybean oil triacylglycerols. Under the conditions tested, the acidolysis reactions using R. miehei lipase allowed for an advantageous exchange between acyl radicals from the TAGs of the SO and FFAs from the Brazilian sardine oil. Soybean oil containing EPA and DHA was successfully produced and may be nutritionally more beneficial than the unmodified oil, showing a n-3/n-6 ratio within the proportions recommended as ideal for parenteral nutrition. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the following Brazilian Financing Agencies: Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP 2008/01235-3) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). “
“The main classes of natural antioxidant compounds in nature are flavonoids and phenolic acids in free or complexed forms. These compounds have been identified and quantified in several fruits and vegetables, and show a high correlation with antioxidant activity (Einbond et al., 2004 and Soares, 2002).

BNP was measured using Triage BNP assay (Biosite Inc, San Diego,

BNP was measured using Triage BNP assay (Biosite Inc, San Diego, California). The interassay percentage coefficient of variation was 8.8% to 11.6%. The detection limit was 5 pg/ml and upper measuring limit was 5,000 pg/ml. hs-TnT was measured using a highly sensitive assay on an automated platform (Elecsys E170, Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana) with lower limit of blank (3 ng/l) and

interassay percentage coefficient of variation ≤10%. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at baseline and at 36 months on a 3-T Magnetom Trio scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using body array and spine matrix radiofrequency coils as described in click here detail previously 9 and 10. CMR images were analyzed offline by an independent, blinded, magnetic resonance physicist (S.J.G.) LY294002 in vivo using commercial software (Argus, Siemens Multi-modality Work Platform, version VB 15, Siemens). Electronic region-of-interest contours were placed around endocardial and epicardial LV borders on all CMR image slices at end-diastole and end-systole that were identified to contain 50% or more full-thickness myocardium. Papillary muscles were included in the LVM if the muscle structure was indistinguishable from the myocardial

wall, but otherwise assigned to the LV blood pool. The process of contour placement was repeated such that every patient dataset at both time points was analyzed twice to optimize the measurement precision. The intraobserver variability was 2.02% at baseline and 1.97% at follow-up. Data for continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for nonnormally distributed data. Categorical data are expressed as numbers (%). Comparisons between continuous variables were analyzed using the Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test, whereas categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square test or Fisher exact test. The primary outcome measure was change in left ventricular IMP dehydrogenase mass (ΔLVM) from baseline to follow-up at 3 year. The study population was divided into 2 groups depending on the rise or fall

in LVM at follow-up compared with the LVM at baseline. We also divided the study cohort into tertiles based on BNP levels according to a prespecified protocol in 2 ways. The first was by dividing the 50 patients into the cohort’s own BNP tertiles. The second was to use the tertile BNP levels of the original 300 patients: this latter approach was used to avoid bias in the way the patients in this substudy were selected from the full cohort (n = 300). The significance level for the trend across the tertiles was calculated by Jonckheere-Terpstra test and chi-square test. Multivariable models were used to identify the predictors of ΔLVM and to calculate c-statistics, and area under the curve was compared by the DeLong method.

The retained aspen might also be easier to colonize by


The retained aspen might also be easier to colonize by

wind dispersed spores simply because the surrounding forest that previously could have been a physical obstacle to dispersal now is removed. In the ISA we found 36 species to be characteristic of young forest. From information on lichen species ecology in the literature and our own field experience, we propose that Caloplaca cerina, C. flavorubescens, C. holocarpa, C. jemtlandica, Leptogium saturninum, Melanelia exasperata, Phaeophyscia ciliata, Physcia aipolia, P. tenella, Rinodina septentrionalis and Xanthoria parietina, all aspen specialists, were present in the old forest, but then higher up or in the crown, and had after logging migrated downwards. On TSA HDAC order the other hand, the generalist species Bryoria spp., Catinaria atropurpurea, Cladonia coniocraea, C. fimbriata, Hypogymnia physodes, Lecanora expallens, L. circumborealis, L. pulicaris, Caspase inhibition L. symmicta, Lecidea nylanderi, Ochrolechia androgyna, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Tuckermanopsis chlorophylla, Usnea

spp. and Vulpicida pinastri are probably new on the aspens, but could have existed in the forest on other tree species. Lecidea albofuscesens was the only species that indicated clearcuts, i.e. old forest. This species is known to grow in shady and moist environments (F. Jonsson, personal observation), and is evidently sensitive to the exposure after logging ( see Appendix for more details). We found 195 species, which was more than twice as much as we expected based on earlier reports. Another published study on the complete lichen flora (foliose, fruticose and crustose species) on aspens

trees was performed by Ellis and Coppins (2007) who found 273 species in 93 aspen stands in Scotland. Although the importance of aspen for lichen biodiversity has been emphasized earlier (e.g. Kuusinen, 1996 and Kouki et al., Cyclooxygenase (COX) 2004), our study clearly demonstrates the great diversity of the lichen community connected to aspen in boreal Northern Europe. Despite the high number of recorded species (85% of the regional species pool), new species should have been added successively with increasing sampling effort, and among these very likely a number of rare, red-listed ones. On the Red List for the counties of Västernorrland and Jämtland, where the study was conducted, there are 30 lichen species that could grow on aspen (Gärdenfors, 2010), i.e. 19 more than we found in our study. Aspens retained at harvest have a great potential to enrich future forest landscapes and to contribute to the persistence of biodiversity connected to this habitat. We found red-listed lichen species also in the young forest, and the total species richness was even higher on the aspens exposed for 10–16 years. This indicates that opening up of stands with aspens could be a positive conservation management action, for instance in connection with thinnings, but also in protected forests.

Similarly, Floater and Zalucki (2000) found that taller trees wer

Similarly, Floater and Zalucki (2000) found that taller trees were more easily located by the processionary caterpillar Ochrogaster lunifer. Plant odors also play an important role in host recognition and location by insects ( Visser, 1986, Bruce et al., 2005 and Tasin et al., 2006), but are more likely to be used over long distances, for the identification of suitable habitats ( Zhang and Schlyter, 2003), or to distinguish between host and non-host plants in mixed patches of vegetation with high levels of diversity. The presence of non-host trees, such as birch, has been shown to disrupt pine recognition by PPM, due to the release of non-host volatile compounds ( Jactel et al., 2011). We hypothesize

that the probability of a tree being attacked, for a given local PPM density, Lumacaftor depends primarily on two key features related to different spatial scales: (H1) host density at the stand scale, with a higher probability of attack in older stands in which tree density is lower, Selleck Dabrafenib and (H2) tree proximity to edge and host

apparency, where proximity to edge might reflect either random choice from imagos emerging from the soil outside pine stands (H2.1), a better survival of eggs and larvae at the edges because of higher temperatures (H2.2), or active PPM female choice for more apparent trees (H2.3). We tested these hypotheses by determining the percentage and distribution of the trees attacked by PPM in 145 stands of the largest pine plantation in Europe during a period between outbreaks. To investigate the mechanisms underlying PPM winter nests distribution, we experimentally tested whether the mortality rate of PPM egg batches differed according to their location within pine stands. The study was carried out in the Landes de Gascogne forest, in South West France. This region is dominated by 800,000 hectares of single species plantations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), of

similar age. We used and re-analyzed two datasets Sucrase described in detail by Samalens, 2009 and Castagneyrol et al., 2014, an overview of which are provided below. The first dataset was used to study the effects of host density (H1), tree distance to stand edge and host apparency (H2.1 vs. H2.3) on PPM infestation, whereas the second dataset was used to test the effect of temperature on egg survival (H2.2). Data for PPM infestations were collected in 2005 from 145 pure stands of maritime pine (P.pinaster) sampled along a systematic grid of 2 km near Pontenx-Les-Forges (44°14′N, 00°07′W) and covering a 16 × 16 km area (i.e. 25,000 ha) in the heart of the Forêt des Landes de Gascogne ( Fig. 1A). The aspect (i.e. North [N], North-East [NE], East [E], South-East [SE], South [S], South-West [SW], West [W], or North-West [NE]) of the sampled edge was recorded. Stands were between four and 61 years old and their density ranged from 113 to 2500 trees/ha.

The fourth treatment modality, and perhaps the most radical depar

The fourth treatment modality, and perhaps the most radical departure from other approaches used to treat BPD, is the use of telephone coaching as a standard operating procedure in DBT. Telephone coaching assists therapists in balancing the dialectic of providing

additional contact to clients during crisis periods while simultaneously extinguishing passive, dependent behaviors and reinforcing active, competent skill use (Linehan, 1993). All clients enrolled in DBT are given access to their therapists between sessions and after hours to assist in the generalization of skills taught in the group skills training sessions (Linehan). While considerable attention in the literature has been devoted to DBT individual therapy and group skills training, only eight papers have been published on telephone coaching (Ben-Porath, Selleck UMI-77 2010, Ben-Porath, 2004, Ben-Porath SCR7 molecular weight and Koons, 2005, Koons, 2011, Limbrunner et al., 2011, Linehan, 2011, Manning, 2011 and Wisniewski and Ben-Porath, 2005). Koons (2011) has described the important role the DBT consultation team plays in maintaining fidelity to phone coaching and preventing burnout in the therapist. Steinberg, Steinberg,

and Miller (2011) have described important and critical issues related to DBT telephone coaching when working with adolescents and families. Wisniewski and Ben-Porath Thiamet G (2005) have adapted the DBT telephone coaching model for BPD to patients with eating disorders. However, what is glaringly absent from the literature is

a basic overview of how to orient new clients to DBT phone coaching. Indeed, Manning (2011) identified failure to orient DBT clients to phone coaching as one of the most common errors clinicians make when implementing DBT telephone consultation. Given that phone coaching is not a standard operating procedure in most therapies, it is important to address this area as many clinicians are unsure how phone coaching differs from intersession crisis-oriented contact. Thus, the goal of this paper is to highlight the functions of phone coaching in DBT and describe how to orient clients to phone coaching who are new to DBT. Research demonstrates that when individuals are informed of goals and expectations in treatment, compliance in therapy increases. For example, Yeomans et al. (1994) have demonstrated that when clients are informed of their expectations and responsibilities in treatment, premature termination decreases and compliance to treatment increases. In spite of this, many clinicians fail to orient their clients to treatment. For example, Kamin and Caughlan (1963) interviewed former clients about their experience in treatment and found that almost 75% had no clear understanding of their role or the role of the therapist.

The guide cannulae were secured in place

The guide cannulae were secured in place click here using two small stainless steel screws anchored to the skull with dental acrylic cement [16]. Animals were allowed 7 d of recovery following the surgery. The D1R antagonist SCH23390 (0.6 μg/200 nL/side; Tocris Bioscience, Ellisville, MO, USA) and the D2R antagonist eticlopride (0.7 μg/200 nL/side; Tocris Bioscience) were separately dissolved in modified Ringer’s solution (MRS; 150mM NaCl, 3.0mM KCl, 1.4mM CaCl2, and 0.8mM MgCl2 in

10mM phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.1) and individually delivered over a period of 60 s using motorized syringe pumps (Sage Instruments, Boston, MA, USA) [17]. Immediately following the EPM test, the rats were decapitated and their brains were removed to verify the guide cannula placements. The CeA tissue samples were sonicated in 1 mL 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO4) and centrifuged (26,000 × g)

at 4°C for 15 min. Then, a 20 μL aliquot of supernatant was injected directly into an HPLC machine with a coulometric detector (Coulochem II; ESA, Bedford, MA, USA). The HPLC system was composed of a C18 reverse-phase column (5 U ODS; Altex, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and an electrochemical transducer with a glassy carbon electrode set at 350 mV. The mobile phase contained 0.16 M citric acid (pH 3.0), 0.02mM EDTA with 0.69mM sodium octanesulfonic acid as an ion-pairing reagent, see more 4% (v/v) acetonitrile, and 1.7% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran. The peaks and values of DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were identified and calculated based on a comparison of their retention times and peak heights with those of standards. The protein concentrations in the brain homogenate samples were determined using a Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay with the HPLC results expressed as ng/g of protein. The frozen CeA tissues were homogenized in lysis buffer [20mM Tris, 5mM EDTA, 1% Nonidet P-40 (vol/vol), and protease Interleukin-2 receptor inhibitors], incubated on ice for 20 min, and centrifuged (19,000 × g) at 4°C for 20 min. Then the supernatants were resolved

via electrophoresis on a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and the proteins were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane (Schleicher & Schuell GmbH, Dassel, Germany). The membrane was incubated with either an anti-mouse tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody or an anti-goat β-actin antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA), washed with tris buffered saline with Tween-20 (TBST; 10mM Tris-Cl pH 7.5, 150mM NaCl, and 0.05% Tween-20), and incubated for 1 h with the appropriate peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies. Bands corresponding to TH and β-actin were visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence Western blot detection reagents (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ, USA).

Cousin et al [14] reported that the level of lipids in the perito

Cousin et al [14] reported that the level of lipids in the peritoneum increased after denervation. This suggests that the sympathetic nervous system influences the activity or differentiation

Nivolumab datasheet of white adipose cells. Parasympathetic nerves as well as sympathetic nerves showed a relation with adipose tissue. Kreier et al [15] reported that when the parasympathetic nerve was removed, the HSL activity in white adipose tissue increased. However, the absorption of FFA and blood glucose decreased. Given that the direct measurement of autonomic nervous activity by micrography is not feasible in a large epidemiological study, heart rate variability (HRV) is used as the measurement method for the autonomic nervous system [16]. HRV is measured by the variation of the beat-to-beat interval. The average R-R is calculated

by 60 divided by the average heart rate in beats/min. Chang et al [17] showed that HRV is related to several component of metabolic syndrome (MtS). When they separated 1,298 individuals into four groups based on the components SCH 900776 cell line of MtS, those who had one or more components of MtS showed a lower standard deviation of the R-R interval compared to a healthy control group. The recorded use of ginseng dates back 2,000 years. It has been one of the most popular herbal supplements in Asia, especially in Korea, China, and Japan. In the USA, ginseng ranked as one of the top-10 selling herbal supplements in 2003 [18]. The primary effective components of ginseng are known as ginsenosides, and these include compound K (CK), Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5, all of which have a steroidal skeleton. In the results of this study,

CK served as the ligand of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [19] and Rg3 functioned as the ligand of estrogen receptor (ER) [20], which implies a possible effect of ginseng on lipolysis. In fact, when CK was administered to a 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line, the storage of triglycerides was suppressed. On the other By contrast, Rg1 stimulated triglyceride storage in adipocytes [21]. Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 treatments in Thalidomide 3T3-L1 suppressed lipid accumulation [22]. As well as the reported effects of ginseng on FFA, red ginseng has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on insulin and glucose regulation. Vuksan et al [23] reported that red ginseng consumption improved insulin and glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes patients. Lee et al [24] showed that red ginseng has a beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity. We also reported that fermented red ginseng (FRG) showed a serial causal effect on the level of hormones, insulin resistance, and insulin levels. In an analysis of the effects of hormones on glucose blood levels, the difference between the FRG group and the placebo group was due to the level of aldosterone [25]. According to an experiment with mice, ginsenosides stimulated an acetylcholine release in the terminal of cholinergic neurons [26].

All cores were split lengthwise and visually described for color,

All cores were split lengthwise and visually described for color, composition, sedimentary structures and grain size. Sediment components were further analyzed with a binocular microscope and an Environmental Scanning Electron

Microscope (ESEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray (EDAX). All mTOR inhibitor cores were subsampled (2-cm interval) and measured for wet and dry bulk density as well as water and organic content following the loss-on-ignition method of Dean (1974). Following the sieve and pipette methods of Folk (1980), grain-size was measured on 15 samples of representative lithologies. Trace metal analysis of core C4 was made following the total digestion methods of Lacey et al. (2001) and Mecray et al. (2001). Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn were measured on a Perkin-Elmer 7000 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

(AAS) having a detection limit of 0.1 mg L−1. Measurement of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Buffalo River Sediment Reference Material yielded recoveries of between 90 and 101% of the reported values, indicating an efficient digestion process. Acid blank samples were below the detection limit of the AAS, indicating no contamination occurred during the digestion procedure. Four replicate samples reveal that variability within each sample was much less than downcore variability. In order to interpret the impoundment sediment in a historical context, core C4 was radiometrically dated. Core C4 recovered an undisturbed sediment surface and extended through the impoundment sediment to bedrock in the wide, deep downstream end of the dam pool (Fig. 2). TSA HDAC No obvious erosional boundaries were observed in core C4. The excess 210Pb that is not produced

by in situ radioactive decay can often be used to date sediment deposits spanning the last Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase 150 years (Appleby, 2001). To determine the 210Pb profile, 21 subsamples from core C4 were sent to MyCore Scientific Inc., Ontario, Canada where the alpha radiation of the granddaughter 210Po was measured using alpha spectrometry. An age interpretation of the 210Pb profile was made by using the constant rate of supply model. In order to delineate the impoundment sediment fill, historic and modern maps were analyzed. Full details of how the maps were georeferenced and analyzed are provided in Mann (2012). After georeferencing, the 1906 topographic map (Wilson et al., 1906) still displayed significant mismatches in parts of the gorge study area. Therefore, we only use the 1906 map to obtain an average channel slope of 0.014 m m−1 within the gorge prior to dam construction. The 22 bathymetric cross sections of Cook (1918) were used to delineate the impoundment sediment surface present in September 1918 (Fig. 2). After georeferencing, the 1918 bathymetric cross sections were digitized. The latitude, longitude and water depth were determined every 3.05 m (10 ft) along the cross sections. It was possible to read water depth to the nearest 15 cm (i.e., half foot).

), sweet potato (Ipomoea

batatas), and a variety of seeds

), sweet potato (Ipomoea

batatas), and a variety of seeds, fruits, and other cultivars (see Newsom and Wing, 2004 and Mickleburgh PCI-32765 and Pagán-Jiménez, 2012). Land clearance was necessary to create gardens and fields for growing crops, but the effects commonly seen on other island regions (e.g., increased erosion, sedimentation, and eutrophication) are not well understood in the Caribbean, largely due to a lack of research on the subject. There are clear signs that initial Saladoid peoples and their descendants during the Ceramic Age (ca. 550 B.C.–A.D. 1400) impacted terrestrial and marine environments in many different parts of the Caribbean. This was something Rainey (1940) identified more than 70 years ago, noting that early occupation layers at Saladoid sites in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands had an abundance of land crabs, but then steadily decreased, only to be replaced by a commensurate increase in Mdm2 antagonist marine mollusks (see also Newsom and Wing, 2004:110–111). Carlson and Keegan (2004:88)

attribute this change to both enhanced aridity and human overexploitation. Changes in marine resource exploitation have also been observed during the Ceramic Age, including a decline in reef fish biomass and mean trophic level; more intensive harvesting of herbivorous and omnivorous species as compared to carnivorous species such as grouper; and an increase in the capture of pelagic fish on several islands in the northern Lesser Antilles (Wing, 2001, Wing and Wing, 2001 and Newsom and Wing, 2004:111). It is important to note, however, that Carder et al. (2007) found no evidence of overharvesting marine fish on Anguilla during the same general period of time, suggesting that some groups were not having an adverse effect on finfish populations, possibly due to differential levels of reef bank productivity.

In terms of shellfish, Keegan et al. (2003) found evidence of peoples on Jamaica between ca. A.D. 750 and 1300 overexploiting certain shellfish species or shifting consumption from one to Glutathione peroxidase another. They suggested that this resulted from over-predation of strombids (particularly queen conch [Eustrombus (Strombus) gigas]) along with a decline in seagrass habitats which were replaced by mangrove and muddier conditions. Like finfish exploitation, however, there are examples of Amerindian groups on different islands who intensively exploited a greater number of species through time and/or the same suite of species in a sustainable fashion. On Carriacou, Giovas, 2013 and Giovas et al., 2013) found that the tessellated nerite (Nerita tessellata), a small gastropod heavily exploited in many parts of the Caribbean, increased in size over time while continuing to be harvested more intensively.