“We develop an analytical
device model for graphene bilayer field-effect transistors (GBL-FETs) with the back and top gates. The model is based on the Boltzmann equation for the electron transport and the Poisson equation in the weak nonlocality approximation for the potential in the GBL-FET channel. The potential distributions in the GBL-FET channel are found analytically. The source-drain current in GBL-FETs and their transconductance are expressed in terms of the geometrical parameters and applied voltages by analytical formulas in the most important limiting cases. These formulas explicitly account selleck compound for the short-gate effect and the effect of drain-induced barrier lowering. The parameters characterizing the strength of these effects are derived. It is shown that the GBL-FET transconductance
exhibits a pronounced maximum as a function of the top-gate see more voltage swing. The interplay of the short-gate effect and the electron collisions results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the transconductance on the top-gate length. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3560921]“
“Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) comprise a family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that are implicated in plant growth and development. In this study, 69 AGPs are identified from the rice genome, including 13 classical AGPs, 15 arabinogalactan (AG) peptides, three non-classical AGPs, three early nodulin-like AGPs (eNod-like AGPs), eight
non-specific lipid transfer protein-like AGPs (nsLTP-like AGPs), and 27 fasciclin-like AGPs (FLAs). The results from expressed sequence tags, microarrays, and massively parallel signature sequencing tags are used to analyse the expression of AGP-encoding genes, which is confirmed by real-time PCR. The results reveal that several rice AGP-encoding TPX-0005 concentration genes are predominantly expressed in anthers and display differential expression patterns in response to abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, and abiotic stresses. Based on the results obtained from this analysis, an attempt has been made to link the protein structures and expression patterns of rice AGP-encoding genes to their functions. Taken together, the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the rice AGP gene family might facilitate further functional studies of rice AGPs.”
“In children with renal insufficiency and accompanying or underlying liver disease, combined liver and kidney transplantations (CLKT) are indicated. However, because of the rare indications, the number of paediatric CLKT is low. Our aim was to analyse CLKT in children with special regard to surgical aspects and outcome. All paediatric CLKT performed at our institution between 1998 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2009, 15 CLKT were performed in 14 paediatric patients (median age 8 years, range 1-16 years).