As an intuitive way to visualize and quantify dynamic processes,

As an intuitive way to visualize and quantify dynamic processes, PRAP is demonstrated first in a simple phantom study and then in a more complex measurement

involving live cells. Compared with the conventional fluorescence-based approach, PRAP provides high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) imaging with minimal bleaching-induced artifacts during the recovery stage, ideal for monitoring the diffusive and kinetic processes inside a cell. (C) 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)”
“OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the clinical consequences of mycophenolate dose reduction in renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based regimens.\n\nDATA SOURCES: DMXAA in vivo PubMed (1949-July 2010), EMBASE (1980-July 2010), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Web of Science were searched using the terms mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, dose reduction, and kidney and/or renal transplant. References from publications identified were reviewed.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies reporting on rejection rate, allograft survival, or renal function were included and ranked according to the US Preventive Services Task Force classification; excluded were studies that were dose-finding or used cyclosporine

only, involved patients on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium or those with multiorgan transplant, or provided no information on concomitant immunosuppressants. Data extracted were study design, sample size, immunosuppression regimen, KOS 953 type of transplant, and allograft outcomes.\n\nDATA

SYNTHESIS: Of 13 studies included, 1 was level I evidence, 3 were level II-2, 6 were level II-3, and 3 were level III evidence. Three focused on AZD8931 research buy tacrolimus-based regimens, whereas 7 included either cyclosporine or tacrolimus. The only prospective, randomized, multicenter trial demonstrated that early taper of mycophenolate dosage to 1 g/day can be utilized without increased risk of rejection, compared with late tapering, but the rejection rate was high (30-40%). Overall, we found conflicting evidence regarding the impact of mycophenolate dose reduction on rejection rate and allograft loss and that discontinuing mycophenolate led to an increased risk of graft loss as high as 8 fold. Allograft survival was lowest in patients with gastrointestinal complications and those in whom mycophenolate was discontinued, compared with patients with neither gastrointestinal complications nor mycophenolate discontinuation.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Weak evidence suggests that mycophenolate dose modifications, either reduction or discontinuation, may increase rejection rate and graft loss; however, this is more apparent in cyclosporine-based regimens. Prospective, well-designed trials are necessary to definitively determine the impact of dose reduction in renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based regimens.

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