The purpose of this review is
to discuss new approaches to immunosuppression, which may address the long-term outcomes after transplant. Recent findings Recent findings in clinical trials have shown that proliferation signal inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors can reduce the incidence and severity of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and are used in higher doses as anticancer agents, but their uses are associated with side-effects. Summary see more Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing newer immunosuppressive agents that will be more effective in treating and preventing these long-term complications with fewer side-effects. At present, there are no new agents other than Rituximab, which
are being studied, in clinical trials.”
“Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating Selleckchem GSK690693 the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms
can serve as a model for future Etomoxir clinical trial investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into the neuronal cell lineage. Here, we describe the highly efficient and specific induction of cells with neuronal characteristics, without glial differentiation, from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by NRSF silencing. Cells that have the characteristics of MSCs were obtained from human bone marrow. Lentiviral vectors were used to deliver small interference NRSF RNA (siNRSF) into MSCs. After being infected with lentivirus containing siNRSF, MSCs were successfully induced to differentiate into neuronal cells, which exhibited neuron-like morphology and formed nissl bodies.