Activity of the nanocomposites for degradation of methylene blue was evaluated under UV irradiation. The degradation rate constant on Ag (3.4 wt%)/ZnMgO FK866 molecular weight nanocomposite is about 11.2, 4.7 and 9.6-fold greater than those of ZnO, ZnMgO and Ag (3.4 wt%)/ZnO photocatalysts, respectively. In addition, influence of various operational parameters on the degradation rate constant was investigated and the results were discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infections can
lead to significant losses to the swine industry by causing reproductive failure in pigs. Germacrone has been reported to efficiently suppress the replication Ilomastat ic50 of influenza virus. In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent
manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy.”
“Polyketides are a diverse class of medically important natural products whose biosynthesis is catalysed by polyketide synthases (PKSs), in a fashion highly analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis. In modular PKSs, the polyketide chain is assembled by the successive condensation of activated carboxylic acid-derived units, where chain extension occurs with the intermediates remaining covalently bound to the enzyme, with the growing polyketide tethered to an acyl carrier domain (ACP). Carboxylated acyl-CoA precursors serve as activated donors that are selected by the acyltransferase domain (AT) providing extender units that are added to the growing chain by condensation catalysed by
the ketosynthase domain (KS). The action of ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) activities can result in unreduced, partially reduced, or fully reduced centres within the polyketide chain depending www.selleckchem.com/products/Ispinesib-mesilate(SB-715992).html on which of these enzymes are present and active. The PKS-catalysed assembly process generates stereochemical diversity, because carbon-carbon double bonds may have either cis- or trans- geometry, and because of the chirality of centres bearing hydroxyl groups (where they are retained) and branching methyl groups (the latter arising from use of propionate extender units). This review shall cover the studies that have determined the stereochemistry in many of the reactions involved in polyketide biosynthesis by modular PKSs.”
“Background and aims: Periconception folic acid supplementation may influence early placentation processes and thereby the occurrence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders.
On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the check details 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy
to control selleckchem coccidiosis in broiler chickens.”
“Heterozygous mutations in PMS2 are involved in Lynch syndrome, whereas biallelic mutations are found in Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome patients. Mutation detection is complicated by the occurrence of sequence exchange events between the duplicated regions of PMS2 and PMS2CL. We investigated the frequency of such events with a nonspecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy, coamplifying both PMS2 and PMS2CL sequences. This allowed us to score ratios
between gene and pseudogene-specific nucleotides at 29 PSV sites from exon 11 to the end of the gene. We found sequence transfer at all investigated PSVs from intron 12 to the 3′ end of the gene in 4 to 52% of DNA samples. Overall, sequence exchange Blebbistatin molecular weight between PMS2 and PMS2CL was observed in 69% (83/120) of individuals. We demonstrate that mutation scanning with PMS2-specific PCR primers and MLPA probes, designed on PSVs, in the 3′ duplicated region is unreliable, and present an RNA-based mutation detection strategy to improve reliability. Using this strategy, we found 19 different putative pathogenic PMS2 mutations. Four of these (21%) are lying in the region with frequent sequence transfer and are missed or called incorrectly as homozygous with
several PSV-based mutation detection methods. Hum Mutat 31:578-587, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“To investigate nuclear lamina re-assembly in vivo, Drosophila A-type and B-type lamins were artificially expressed in Drosophila lamin Dm(0) null mutant brain cells. Both exogenous lamin C (A-type) and Dm(0) (B-type) formed sub-layers at the nuclear periphery, and efficiently reverted the abnormal Clustering of the NPC. Lamin C initially appeared where NPCs were clustered, and subsequently extended along the nuclear periphery accompanied by the recovery of the regular distribution of NPCs. In contrast, lamin Dm(0) did not show association with the clustered NPCs during lamina formation and NPC spacing recovered only after completion of a closed lamin Dm(0) layer. Further, when lamin Dm(0) and C were both expressed, they did not co-polymerize, initiating layer formation in separate regions.
The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The calculated state energies are compared with the available experimental data. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3698584]“
“Purpose: To determine the rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy.\n\nMethods: The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed.\n\nResults:
The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45-73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable E1 Activating inhibitor mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered
until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy. Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine selleckchem patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct and resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids, including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was Kinase Inhibitor Library datasheet discovered during the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy either concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6-96 months). In
10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow up.\n\nConclusions: With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas.”
“Objective: To investigate experimentally the time dependent changes of latency, amplitude, threshold of neural response in injured rat facial nerve in a nerve-crush trauma model.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g (12-16 week), were grouped for permanent and transient nerve injury during time course analysis of electrophysiological changes at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd and 6th months.
\n\nDesign, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an observational study of 15,368 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 111; 5.9% had CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Based on the frequency and intensity of leisure time physical activity obtained by a questionnaire, participants were divided into inactive, insufficiently active, and active groups. Time to mortality was examined in Cox models, taking into account the complex survey design.\n\nResults: Inactivity was present in 13.5% of the non-CKD and 28.0% of the CKD groups (P < 0.001). In two separate multivariable Cox models, compared with the physically inactive group, hazard ratios
(95% selleck inhibitor confidence intervals) of mortality for insufficiently active and active groups were 0.60 (0.45 to 0.81) and 0.59 (0.45 to 0.77) in the non-CKD subpopulation and 0.58 (0.42 to 0.79) and 0.44 (0.33 to 0.58) in the CKD subpopulation. These hazard ratios did not differ significantly between the CKD and non-CKD subpopulations (P > 0.3).\n\nConclusions: Physical inactivity
is associated with increased mortality in CKD and non-CKD populations. AC220 concentration As in the non-CKD population, increased physical activity might have a survival benefit in the CKD population. Clin J Ant Soc Nephrol 4 1901-1906, 2009 doi 10 2215/CJN 01970309″
“We studied the effect of systemic administration of multipotent stem cells on impaired neurological status in rats with brain injury. It was found that transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the bone marrow or human neural stem and progenitor cells
to rats with local brain injury promoted recovery of the brain control over locomotor function and proprioceptive sensitivity of forelegs. The dynamics of neurological recovery was similar after transplantation of fetal neural stem and progenitor cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Transplantation of cell cultures improved survival of experimental animals. It should be noted that administration of neural stem and progenitor cells prevented animal death not only in the acute traumatic period, but also in delayed periods.”
“Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence Flavopiridol and risk factors of anemia among adolescents in Denizli where Mediterranean cuisine (fresh fruit and vegetables) is adopted.\n\nMethods: We accepted hemoglobin values below 12 g/dl for girls and 13 g/dl for boys as the criteria of anemia. We recorded a detailed history including nutritional habits, consumption of animal source foods especially red meat, consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, presence of parasitic infestation, psychosocial status, school success and any materials consumed except ordinary food.\n\nFindings:We investigated the prevalence of anemia in 1120 children (672 girls and 448 boys), aged 12 to 16 years. We found that the overall prevalence of anemia was 5.6%. 8.3% of the girls and 1.
Proteasome inhibition is effective in treating certain forms of cancer, while UPS dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of many severe and yet common diseases. It has been previously shown that doxorubicin (Dox) enhances the degradation of a UPS surrogate substrate in mouse hearts. To address the underlying mechanism, in the present study, we report that 1) Dox not only enhances the degradation of an exogenous UPS reporter (GFPu) but also antagonizes selleck products the proteasome inhibitor-induced accumulation of endogenous substrates
(e. g., beta-catenin and c-Jun) of the UPS in cultured NIH 3T3 cells and cardiomyocytes; 2) Dox facilitates the in vitro degradation of GFPu and c-Jun by the reconstituted UPS via the enhancement of proteasomal function; 3) Dox at a therapeutically relevant dose directly stimulates the peptidase activities of purified 20S proteasomes; and 4) Dox increases, whereas proteasome inhibition decreases, E3 ligase COOH-terminus of heat shock protein cognate 70 in 3T3 cells via a posttranscriptional mechanism. These new findings suggest that Dox activates the UPS by acting directly on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome.”
“The lipid organization in
the stratum corneum (SC), plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. SC lipids form two lamellar phases with a predominantly orthorhombic packing. In previous publications a lipid model was selleck chemicals llc presented, referred to as the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), that closely mimics the SC lipid organization and barrier function. Therefore, the SCS serves as a unique tool to relate lipid organization with barrier function. In the present study we PXD101 chemical structure examined the effect of the orthorhombic to hexagonal phase transition on the barrier function of human SC and SCS. In addition, the SCS was modified by changing the free fatty acid composition, resulting in a hexagonal packing and perturbed lamellar organization. By measuring the permeability to benzoic
acid as function of temperature, Arrhenius plots were constructed from which activation energies were calculated. The results suggest that the change from orthorhombic to hexagonal packing in human SC and SCS, does not have an effect on the permeability. However, the modified SCS revealed an increased permeability to benzoic acid, which we related to its perturbed lamellar organization. Thus, a proper lamellar organization is more crucial for a competent barrier function than the presence of an orthorhombic lateral packing. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Transcriptional polarity occurs in Escherichia coli when cryptic Rho-dependent transcription terminators become activated as a consequence of reduced translation. Increased spacing between RNA polymerase and the leading ribosome allows the transcription termination factor Rho to bind to mRNA, migrate to the RNA polymerase, and induce termination.
Apidaecin had a double-edged effect: at low concentrations it partially antagonized LPS-stimulatory effects on both macrophages and monocytes
while it stimulated pro-inflammatory and pro-immune functions of macrophages at higher concentrations. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic Alvespimycin purchase kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating
characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, learn more gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary AG-014699 DNA Damage inhibitor nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.”
“Background: Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically) of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during
processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state.\n\nResults: First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT) under controlled humidity conditions.
This work sets the stage for
developing future implantable closed-loop neuro-prosthetic devices for restoration of bladder function. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.”
“Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis affecting millions of people worldwide. Due to the inability to cultivate NoVs, current NoV vaccine development relies on bioengineering technologies to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) and other subviral particles of NoVs as subunit vaccines. The first VLP vaccine has reached phase II clinical trials and several others are under development in pre-clinical research. Several subviral complexes made from the protruding (P) domains of NoV capsid share common features of easy production, high stability and high immunogenicity and thus are candidates for low cost vaccines. These P domain complexes can also be used as vaccine platforms to present foreign antigens for potential dual vaccines against NoVs and other pathogens. Fludarabine Development of NoV vaccines also faces other challenges, including genetic diversity of NoVs, limit understanding of NoV immunology and evolution, and lack of an efficient NoV animal model for vaccine assessment, which are discussed in this article.”
“Purpose. To examine the clinical implications of change in choroidal neovascularization
(CNV) size on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy. LY411575 Methods. The charts of subjects with an idiopathic CNV treated by a modified PRN regimen with intravitreal bevacizumab over a 12-month period were retrospectively
reviewed. Results. There were 34 subjects included in the analysis. Baseline CNV sizes of less than 1.0 mm(2) on ICG angiography correlated with complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0404), fewer injections delivered (P = 0.0002), and better Snellen visual acuity (P = 0.0098) at 12 months. Subjects that experienced a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months had complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0047) and fewer injections (P smaller than 0.0001) at 12 months compared to subjects that did not experience a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months. Conclusions. Smaller baseline CNV size on ICG angiography resulted in better visual acuity S63845 mw and fewer injections at 12 months, and a reduction of 33% or more in CNV size after 2 months may predict a better clinical course in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy.”
“Introduction. Modern particle therapy facilities enable sub-millimeter precision in dose deposition. Here, also ionization chambers (ICs) are used, which requires knowledge of the recombination effects. Up to now, recombination is corrected using phenomenological approaches for practical reasons. In this study the effect of the underlying dose distribution on columnar recombination, a quantitative model for initial recombination, is investigated.
Educational interventions about dementia have been effective in the long-term care community; however, there is a need for increased on-the-job training regarding depression in older adults in order to improve the ability to differentiate depression
from dementia, especially for paraprofessional staff.”
“The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in check details vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30 d, 60 d and 90 d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90 d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90 d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for Sapitinib inhibitor King pigeon neurons is between 15
mu g L-1 and 20 mu g L-1. Following AVM (2.5-20 mu g L-1) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20 mu g L-1) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression
of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Transcobalamin (TC) and haptocorrin (HQ are serum corrinoid-binding proteins. Selleck AZD8931 We developed new methods for measurement of the corrinoids bound to HC and TC.\n\nMETHODS: TC (n = 10) or HC (n = 138) was immunoprecipated, and corrinoids were released by enzymatic degradation [subtilisin Carlsberg (EC 22.214.171.124)] of the binding proteins. Binding of the released corrinoids to added unsaturated TC (apoTC) or HC (apoHC) created holoTC (as measure of cobalamins) and holoHC (as measure of corrinoids). holoTC and holoHC were measured by use of ELISA. The amounts of analogs were Calculated as the difference between corrinoids and cobalamins. Corrinoids extracted from HC were separated with HPLC after addition of potassium cyanide (n = 3).
It has been seen that increasing value from by-products of oil production is important for the viability of the crop for the farmers. The seed kernel meal left after oil extraction is A-1210477 nmr potentially of high market value as an animal feed ingredient. Every kilogram of oil produced from jatropha seeds generates about 0.75 kg of high quality seed kernel meal. It has a high protein content (65% on a dry matter basis) with a favourable amino acid composition, but is toxic because of the presence of compounds called phorbol esters. We introduce a non-toxic jatropha variety where phorbol esters are absent in the seeds and hence, the kernel meal can be included in animal feeds after conventional heat treatment
similar to that done for soybean meal. Preliminary observations in a field trial indicates that there are non-toxic jatropha provenances that are similar to or better than the conventional toxic jatropha varieties in seed yield
per plant and seed oil content. Non-toxic jatropha check details has potential as a viable bio-oil crop if high quality seeds are used for developing the plantation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are ubiquitous small heat-stable disulfide oxidoreductases that play a crucial role in plant development and response to oxidative stress. Here, a novel cDNA fragment (SlGRX1) from tomato encoding a protein containing the consensus Grx family domain with a CGFS active site was isolated and characterized. Southern blot analysis indicated that SlGRX1 gene had a single copy in tomato genome. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed
that SlGRX1 was expressed learn more ubiquitously in tomato including leaf, root, stem and flower, and its expression could be induced by oxidative, drought, and salt stresses. Virus-induced gene silencing mediated silencing of SlGRX1 in tomato led to increased sensitivity to oxidative and salt stresses with decreased relative chlorophyll content, and reduced tolerance to drought stress with decreased relative water content. In contrast, over-expression of SlGRX1 in Arabidopsis plants significantly increased resistance of plants to oxidative, drought, and salt stresses. Furthermore, expression levels of oxidative, drought and salt stress related genes Apx2, Apx6, and RD22 were up-regulated in SlGRX1-overexpressed Arabidopsis plants when analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggest that the Grx gene SlGRX1 plays an important role in regulating abiotic tolerance against oxidative, drought, and salt stresses.”
“Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable expansion of CAG repeats ( bigger than 35 repeats) within exon 1 of the interesting transcript 15 (IT15) gene. This gene encodes a protein called Huntingtin (Htt), and mutation of the gene results in a polyglutamine (polyQ) near the N-terminus of Htt.
A study by Lee et al. found the costs of home HD to be substantially less than IHD ($93,976 vs. $54,936, p < 0.001). A study by Kroeker et al. found that the lowest costs were seen with home short daily HD ($82,522),
compared with $89,154 for IHD, and $91,218 for HNHD. Two studies by McFarlane et al. found that total costs were lower for those receiving HNHD (IHD $87,172 vs. HNHD $71,313), and that HNHD was associated with a superior cost-utility ratio (CAN$ 2011, HNHD $84,430/quality-adjusted life year [QALY] vs. IHD $148,722/QALY, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: -$54,281, p < 0.05). While consistent findings of lower staffing and overhead costs for home HD, and higher consumable costs for frequent dialysis are probably reliable, findings ACY-241 of lower medication and hospital admission costs seen with intensive HD will need confirmation in randomized studies. Selleckchem PFTα Modifications to conventional dialysis funding are needed to accommodate for the additional costs of supplies and technology needed to support intensive modalities.”
“P>Background and Aim of the Study: Dilatation of the STJ may cause consequent aortic insufficiency (AI) in patients with normal aortic valve, in patients with ascending aortic aneurysm. In this study, we analyzed the results of ascending aorta replacement with STJ diameter reduction to correct consequent AI in patients with ascending aortic aneurysm. Methods:
Forty-five consecutive patients who had ascending aortic aneurysm underwent replacement of ascending aorta with reduction of the STJ diameter to correct AI. Mean age of the patients was 61.3 +/- 5.2. Twenty-six
(57.8%) were female. Six patients had arch aneurysm. Postoperative echocardiographic studies were performed at discharge and annually thereafter. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 +/- 2.9 years. Results: Hospital mortality rate was 4.9% (n = 2). Three patients died during follow-up. Three patients had late recurrence of AI that was caused by aortic root dilatation. Napabucasin One of these patients required aortic valve replacement because of severe aortic insufficiency. The five-year survival and survival free from aortic insufficiency were 91.4% +/- 5.0% and 91.2% +/- 5.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Reduction of the diameter of STJ can be used to treat AI in patients with ascending aortic aneurysm with nearly normal aortic cusps. Midterm results of this procedure are encouraging. (J Card Surg 2011;26:88-91).”
“We describe the case of a nine-day-old female Holstein calf which had cheiloschisis, a moderate dome-shaped head, ataxia and opisthotonus since birth. No significant findings except the dome-shaped head were observed on survey radiography of the skull. Computed tomography (CT) images showed bilateral lateral ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia and a cyst-like lesion communicating with the right lateral ventricle.