aeruginosa. The WT time series (Figure 2A) show, as before [13, 25], that rhlAB promoter-controlled GFP was expressed at the onset of the stationary phase. Here we complement this observation by showing for the first time
that the onset of rhamnolipid production follows the same timing as the gene expression SRT2104 supplier using the reconstructed time series of rhamnolipid secretion (Figure 2B). This supports biochemical studies suggesting that expression of rhlAB is the main step controlling the start of rhamnolipid synthesis . The strain with the reporter fusion in the ΔrhlA background (NEG) showed that up-regulation of the gene is still active and that cells would still produce rhamnolipids if rhlA was not deleted (Figure 4A and 4D). The fact that the timing and quantity of GFP expression for this strain (Figure 4A) resembles that of WT expression (Figure 2A) suggests that there is no feedback of biosurfactant synthesis on the expression of rhlAB. Our experiments AZD8931 also confirmed that cells lacking autoinducer synthesis (QSN) do not express rhlAB nor produce rhamnolipids in the absence of autoinducer (Figure 4E, black and gray squares). As expected, both rhlAB expression and rhamnolipid secretion were recovered when the autoinducer was supplied in the medium (Figure 4B and
4E, black and gray triangles). Interestingly, however, even in the presence of autoinducer in the medium rhlAB expression and rhamnolipid secretion were not constitutive but rather the delay until entry into the stationary phase (Figure 4B and 4E, triangles and [13, 26, 37]) that is characteristic of the selleck chemicals wild-type was maintained. We then confirmed that it is, in fact, possible for P. aeruginosa to start rhamnolipid secretion earlier in growth by using an rhlAB-inducible strain (IND). With the level of inducer used (0.5% (w/v) L-arabinose) IND started rhamnolipid secretion already
in the exponential DOCK10 phase of growth (Figure 4C and 4F). Taken together our observations further support that rhamnolipid secretion has additional regulation besides quorum sensing. Such regulation was recently proposed to be a molecular mechanism of metabolic prudence that stabilizes swarming motility against evolutionary ‘cheaters’ . Our measurements are population averages even though systems biology is increasingly focusing on single-cell measurements. However, there is presently no method to measure rhamnose secretions in single cells. Nonetheless, reconstruction of distributions of single-cell gene expression is possible using reporter fusions either by fluorescence microscopy  or flow-cytometry . Such single-cell measurements can be carried out offline and reconstructed into time series using our method of growth curve synchronization.