Reovirus myelitis was associated with the pronounced Napabucasin mouse activation of SC glia, as evidenced by characteristic changes in cellular morphology and increased expression of astrocyte and microglia-specific proteins. Expression of inflammatory mediators known to be released by activated glia, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL 5), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), was also significantly upregulated in the SC
of reovirus-infected animals compared to mock-infected controls. Reovirus infection of the mouse SC was also associated with increased expression of genes involved in IFN signaling, SHP099 including IFN-stimulated genes (ISG). Further, reovirus infection of mice deficient in the expression of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR(-/-)) resulted in accelerated mortality, demonstrating that IFN signaling is protective during reovirus myelitis. Experiments performed in ex vivo SC slice cultures (SCSC) confirmed that resident SC cells contribute
to the production of at least some of these inflammatory mediators and ISG during reovirus infection. Microglia, but not astrocytes, were still activated, and glia-associated inflammatory mediators were still produced in reovirus-infected INFAR(-/-) VE-821 cell line mice, demonstrating that IFN signaling is not absolutely required for these neuroinflammatory responses. Our results suggest that activated glia and inflammatory mediators contribute to a local microenvironment that is deleterious to neuronal
“Alexithymia is characterized by a marked inability to identify feelings and emotional states and some studies have documented sensorial perception in response to visual or auditory cues in this disease. Although olfaction is well known for its emotional correlates, the perception of olfactory stimulations has not been previously investigated. This study compares with standard psychophysical methods the olfactory sensitivity and the self-ratings of intensity and hedonic valence of a panel of odorants in alexithymic patients, non-alexithymic patients and control subjects. Results show that alexithymics over-evaluate intensity and pleasantness of odorants compared to non-alexithymics or control subjects. This could be interpreted in the framework of a lack of inhibitory control including this particular sense. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest.