“Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease, with a prevalence ranging from 10% to 30%. The use of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) agonists for the treatment of NAFLD has
not been considered viable because thyroid hormones increase free fatty acid (FFA) flux from the periphery to the liver, induce hepatic lipogenesis, and therefore could potentially cause steatosis. MB07811 is an orally active HepDirect prodrug of MB07344, a liver-targeted TR-beta BTSA1 inhibitor agonist. The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of MB07811 on whole body and liver lipid metabolism of normal rodents and rodent models of hepatic steatosis. In the current studies, MB07811 markedly reduced hepatic steatosis as well as reduced plasma FFA and triglycerides.
In contrast to MB07811, T(3) induced adipocyte lipolysis in vitro and in vivo and had a diminished ability to decrease hepatic steatosis. This suggests the influx of FFA from the periphery to the liver may partially counteract the antisteatotic activity of T(3). Clearance of liver lipids by MB07811 results from accelerated hepatic fatty acid oxidation, a known consequence of hepatic TR activation, as reflected by increased hepatic mitochondrial respiration rates, changes in hepatic gene expression, and increased plasma acyl-carnitine levels. Transaminase levels remained unchanged, or were
reduced, and no evidence for liver fibrosis or other histological liver damage was observed after treatment with MB07811 for up to 10 weeks. Additionally, MB07811, unlike T(3), JQEZ5 did not increase heart weight or decrease pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone beta (TSH beta) expression. Conclusion. MB07811 represents a novel class of liver-targeted TR agonists with beneficial low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering properties that may provide additional therapeutic benefit to hyperlipidemic patients with concomitant NAFLD. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;49:407-417.)”
“The thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus belongs to one of the oldest branches of evolution and has a multilayered cell envelope that differs from that of modern Gram-negative bacteria. Its outer membrane Selleckchem Quisinostat contains integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs), of which only a few are characterized. TtoA, a new beta-barrel OMP, was identified by searching the genome sequence of strain HB27 for the presence of a C-terminal signature sequence. The structure of TtoA was determined to a resolution of 2.8 angstrom, representing the first crystal structure of an OMP from a thermophilic bacterium. TtoA consists of an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a large extracellular part to which a divalent cation is bound. A five-stranded extracellular beta-sheet protrudes out of the membrane-embedded transmembrane barrel and is stabilized by a disulfide bridge.