Furthermore, mutant JFH-1 viruses bearing SPP-resistant mutations

Furthermore, mutant JFH-1 viruses bearing SPP-resistant mutations in the core protein failed to propagate in a permissive cell line. These results suggest that intramembrane processing of HCV core protein by SPP is required for the localization of the HCV core protein in the DRM and for viral propagation.”
“Adenoviruses (Ad) with the early region E4 deleted (E4-deleted virus) are defective for DNA replication and late protein synthesis. Infection with E4-deleted viruses results in activation of a

DNA damage response, accumulation of cellular repair factors in foci at viral replication centers, and joining together of viral genomes into concatemers. The cellular DNA repair complex composed of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) is required for concatemer formation

and full activation of damage signaling through the protein kinases Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3-related selleck (ATR). The E4orf3 and E4orf6 proteins expressed from the E4 region of Ad type 5 (Ad5) inactivate the MRN complex by degradation and mislocalization, and prevent the DNA damage response. Here we investigated individual contributions of the MRN complex, concatemer formation, and damage signaling to viral DNA replication during infection with E4-deleted virus. Using virus mutants, short hairpin RNA knockdown and hypomorphic cell lines, we show that inactivation of MRN results in increased viral replication. We demonstrate that defective replication in the absence of E4 is not due to concatemer formation or DNA damage signaling.

The C terminus of Nbs1 click here is required for the inhibition of Ad DNA replication and recruitment of MRN to viral replication centers. We identified regions of Nbs1 that are differentially required for concatemer formation and inhibition of Ad DNA replication. These results demonstrate that targeting of the MRN complex explains the redundant functions of E4orf3 and E4orf6 in promoting Ad DNA replication. Understanding how MRN impacts the adenoviral life cycle will provide insights into the functions of this DNA damage sensor.”
“The lentiviral Nef protein has been studied extensively for its ability to induce the downregulation of several immunoreceptors THZ1 cost on the surfaces of infected cells. However, Nef expression is unique in inducing highly effective upregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated chaperone invariant (Ii) chain complexes in different cell types. Under normal conditions, endocytosis of the Ii chain and other molecules, like the transferrin receptor and CD4, is rapid and AP-2 dependent. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef expression strongly reduces the internalization of the Ii chain, enhances that of CD4, and does not modify transferrin uptake. The mutation of AP-2 binding motifs LL164 and DD174 in Nef leads to the inhibition of Ii chain upregulation.

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