“A PLX3397 purchase thermodynamic model is proposed to study the exergetic content of incident solar radiation reaching on the Earth’s surface which can be used to produce work through a dually cascaded thermodynamic cycle. The “”topping”" cycle is an ad hoc engine created by nature that connects the outer shell of the terrestrial atmosphere (which is in equilibrium with the extraterrestrial solar radiation) to the collector of a solar heat engine operating on the Earth’s surface. The work produced by the topping cycle is dissipated in form of scattering, absorption,
heat, movement of air masses (wind), etc. The “”bottoming”" cycle is a heat engine operating between the collector and surrounding temperatures, and delivers useful work. It is shown that the maximum work extractable from this system as exergy is obtained when both cycles operate reversibly. An expression for this maximum work, which represents the exergy of incident solar radiation on the Earth’s surface, is proposed. The application of the present model is illustrated and validated by calculating the exergy of solar radiation based on some measurements. The results obtained by the present model are compared to the ones obtained through other models
available in the open literature.”
“Purpose: With the numbers of cancer diagnoses increasing annually and the aging of the global citizenry, it is certain that more nurses G418 with expert competencies in cancer care will be needed. Nursing students must have a broad understanding of cancer content in order
to provide safe, effective care in the clinical setting as they learn to recognize their own experiences in caring for cancer patients. Experienced nursing educators are aware that student nurses bring into any clinical learning situation their unique knowledge, RGFP966 concentration values, fear, uncertainty and bias. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of nursing students caring for cancer patients.
Method: This descriptive qualitative study included participants who were Junior or Senior Baccalaureate nursing students and had provided care for at least one patient with cancer during clinical experiences. Focus group interviews were transcribed verbatim for analysis and coding using accepted qualitative techniques.
Results: Data analysis revealed student experiences to be varied in the type of cancer patient experiences. Four prevalent sub-themes emerged regarding student experiences: caring for patients and families, interactions between students and healthcare providers, student experiences with dying patients, and students’ prior experiences with cancer. Further discussion with students revealed a student perspective for strengthening cancer in the curriculum.
Conclusion: Preparing students to be comfortable with cancer patients across the cancer illness trajectory will provide students with the necessary skills to gain confidence in their cancer patient care. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd.