3) The B abortus isolates showing a major MLVA profile in a farm

3) The B. abortus isolates showing a major MLVA profile in a farm were selected (one strain/farm). Figure 2 Cluster analysis for B. abortus isolates based on the dataset of 17 loci. Here was included in 105 B. abortus isolates (included RB51 isolate) and 11 B. abortus standard strains. All the isolates were confirmed to B. abortus strains and were classified into nine clusters and 23 genotypes (A1-I1). In the columns, the following data for isolates were given: species, biovar, strain ID, breed (Hanwoo; Korean native cattle), isolation year, farm, province, and district.

Ruxolitinib in vitro Figure 3 Geographic distribution of 104 B. abortus isolates from Korea. B. abortus isolates were selected in 104 outbreak farms (one strain/farm) from 1996 to 2008. Interestingly, an isolate VS-4718 ic50 from the CB04 farm in Chungbuk Jecheon in 1999 was confirmed to be B. abortus RB51 strain through differential AMOS PCR and the rifampicin resistance test (data not shown). This strain coincided with the MLVA profiles of the standard RB51 vaccine strain, and clustered together. RB51 vaccination was suspended in Korea in 1997, however, as it caused abortions in pregnant cows. This result shows that

there is a possibility that the RB51 strain can remain in the body or in a stall for above two years, if not, introduce by unknown mechanism. For comparison with the foreign B. abortus strains, a dataset of them was downloaded from the related Websites http://​mlva.​u-psud.​fr[23, 30]. Forty-eight foreign strains, including the reference strain and 23 B. abortus isolates RepSox mw representing the genotypes in Korea, were analyzed by 16 loci, except for Hoof 3, not as information of the foreign strains. In the maximum parsimony analysis with focus on evolutionary modelling, the Korean isolates were compacted and clustered independently. They were located in the middle of the European and African isolates and near the Central and Southern American isolates (Figure 4). Figure 4 Maximum parsimony analysis of foreign B. abortus 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl strains and Korean isolates. The data for 48 foreign strains including the reference strain were downloaded from the related websites http://​mlva.​u-psud.​fr[23,

30]. There were analyzed by 16 loci, except for Hoof 3, not as information of the foreign strains. The 23 Korean isolates, which were representing 23 genotypes, were compact and were located near the Central and Southern American isolates. To confirm the stability of 17 loci in the same strains, their stability was examined via both the in-vitro and in-vivo passages. After more than 30 times of in-vitro cultivation at two- to three-day intervals, the changes of TRs copy numbers for B. abortus 544, B. abortus 2308, and two B. abortus isolates were determined. B. abortus 544 showed an increase in one TRs copy number in the Bruce 04 and 16 at passage 28 times, and a decrease in one TRs copy number in Hoof 3 at passage 29 times (Table 4). But, MLVA profiles for 3 strains except for B.

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