174,175 Antipsychotics have also been shown to influence other pr

174,175 Antipsychotics have also been shown to influence other prominent cascades discussed above, including Bcl-2,176 GSK-3,177 and CREB.178 Many studies have assessed the effects of antipsychotics on neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF), and have noted significant differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics. Typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol tend to reduce BDNF expression in regions of the hippocampus179-181 and striatum.182 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Atypical antipsychotics do not consistently downregulate BDNF,

and their more diverse set of responses make critical evaluations more challenging (see ref Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 183). One recent study noted that, after chronic (90-day) treatment with haloperidol, transitioning to the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine or risperidone appeared to rescue BDNF expression back to near baseline levels.182,184 Studies have

demonstrated that chronic or high doses of typical antipsychotics, like haloperidol and reserpine, can be neurotoxic, inducing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical apoptosis and reducing cell viability. Though the mechanism remains unclear, high doses of haloperidol induced apoptosis in the striatum and selleck chemicals llc substantia nigra of rats treated via acute intraperitoneal injection.185 In vivo investigations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have further noted that brain regions like the striatum, hypothalamus, and limbic structures were some of the most drasticallyaltered cytoarchitecturally by conventional antipsychotics.186 Macaque monkeys treated for 17 to 27 months with therapeutic levels of either haloperidol or olanzapine had reduced brain volumes by ~10%, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most prominently in the parietal and frontal brain lobes.187 Other studies found the opposite effect, that chronic treatment of rats with haloperidol increased striatal volume.188 In contrast, atypical antipsychotics appear to have some neuroprotective

functions. For example, pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, quetiapine, or risperidone prevented PC12 cell death following serum withdrawal,189 while olanzapine reduced cell death in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and 3T3 cells following a number of death-inducing treatments.174 Neuroprotective PAK6 properties have also been demonstrated for the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine against various insults, such as oxidative stressors190 and ischemia.191 Olanzapine also upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in rat frontal cortex and the hippocampus, as well as the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus.176,181 Studies have suggested that other atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and quetiapine, have neuroprotective properties that might be relevant to their clinical efficacy.

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