These samples were derived from cattle epithelial tissues (except one of ovine origin), and Selleckchem Vorinostat were initially grown in primary bovine thyroid cells with subsequent passage in either BHK-21 or IB-RS2 cells. Stocks of virus were prepared by infecting IB-RS2 cell monolayers and were stored as clarified tissue culture harvest at −70 °C until required. Supplementary Table S1. List of serotype A viruses used in this study. nd: not designated; nk: not known. The P1 sequences have been submitted to Gene Bank and awaiting accession numbers. Antisera were prepared against serotype A FMD viruses (A22/Iraq
and A/TUR/2006) by immunising five cattle per v/s with inactivated, purified 146S FMD virus particles in ISA-206 adjuvant. Bulk blood was collected on 21 day post-vaccination for preparation of sera. For each antigen, a pool of sera from five animals was used in the serological tests. The A22/Iraq and A/TUR/2006 antisera exhibited equivalent homologous titres (log10 2.43 and 2.54, respectively) by virus neutralisation test (VNT). The 2D-VNT was carried out using the 21-day post-vaccination sera following established methodology . Antibody titres were calculated from regression data as the log10 reciprocal antibody dilution required for 50% neutralisation of 100 tissue culture infective
units of virus (log10SN50/100 TCID50). The antigenic relationship of viruses based on their neutralisation by antibodies GSK1349572 in vitro is given by the ratio: ‘r1′ = neutralising antibody titre against the heterologous virus/neutralising antibody titre against the homologous virus. Differences in the r1-values obtained by the polyclonal antiserum were evaluated according to standard criteria nearly . The sequences of the entire capsid coding
region (P1) of selected viruses were generated. RNA extraction from the cell culture grown viruses and reverse transcription (RT) were performed as described . PCR was carried out using the “KOD hot-start DNA polymerase” kit (Novagen) as recommended by the manufacturer, using the forward primer L463F (5′-ACCTCCRACGGGTGGTACGC-3′) and one of the reverse primers NK72 (5′-GAAGGGCCCAGGGTTGGACTC-3′) or EUR2B52R (5′-GACATGTCCTCCTGCATCTGGTTGAT-3′). PCR products were purified using the QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and sequenced using BigDye® Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using the PCR primers and additional internal sequencing primers (sequences available on request). Sequences (from the ABI 3730 machine) were assembled and analysed using SeqMan II (DNAStar Lasergene 8.0). Nucleotide sequences of the viruses were aligned using the CLUSTAL X multiple sequence alignment program  and the predicted aa sequences were translated using BioEdit 7.0.1 .