The median infant birth weight was 3.1 kg (IQR 2.95, 3.4). Seventy-one infants completed visit 10 (48 weeks) within the scheduled visit window, with one infant attending late, giving an overall retention of 99% at 48 weeks. There were no significant differences between the Selisistat chemical structure 2 groups at baseline ( Table 1). Most vaccinated infants had pain, redness
and hardness on day 1 and 2 post-vaccination (Table 2). One week post-vaccination, 1 infant had grade 1 pain, 2 had redness measuring 0.3 and 0.5 cm and 14 had hardness with median (range) diameter of 0.5 (0.1–1) cm. All these events had resolved by 8 weeks post-vaccination. Three infants had lymphadenopathy measuring 0.5 cm in 2 infants and 0.6 cm in 1 infant at
week 1; these resolved by week 8. Another infant had lymphadenopathy measuring 0.5 cm at week 8 (Table 2). As previously reported, 58% infants displayed hematologic toxicities pre-randomization . However, there were no significant hematology or biochemistry differences between the vaccinees and controls post-vaccination (Table 3). There were 8 severe adverse events, 5 in the vaccine arm and 3 in the control arm. Among vaccinees, 1 infant had an upper respiratory tract infection, 2 had gastroenteritis, 1 had septicemia and 1 had a depressed skull fracture, while among controls, 2 infants had neutropenia and 1 had pneumonia (Table 4). None of these events were considered vaccine-related. A total of 262 ex vivo
Trichostatin A order IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were conducted for 72 infants, with 18, 28, 14 and 12 infants tested at 5, 4, 3 and fewer time points, respectively. Results were also obtained for a total of 142 cultured assays from 51 infants with 39 and Edoxaban 12 infants tested at 3 and 2 time points, respectively. Overall, no positive HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detected using either of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assays, although transiently higher frequencies were detected in the MVA.HIVA arm (p = 0.002) in fresh ex vivo assays, but not above the threshold frequencies considered as a positive result (Supplementary Table S1). Note, that infants have up to 15-fold higher PBMC counts per 1 ml of peripheral blood compared to adults. KEPI vaccinations elicited protective antibody levels to Hib, poliovirus, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in a majority of the infants with no statistically significant differences between the two arms (Table 5). For HBV, immune response to vaccine differed between the two groups; 71% of MVA.HIVA arm subjects versus 92% of control subjects achieved protective antibody levels to HBV (≥10 mIU ml−1) 1 week post-vaccination (p = 0.05), reflecting the greater drop in levels in the MVA.HIVA arm between weeks 19 and 21 (p = 0.025). Infants’ blood was regularly tested for HIV-1-specific DNA or antibodies. Post-randomization, all infants remained HIV negative at repeated serial testing.