The late pre-B

The late pre-B selleck (fraction D) and immature B (fraction E) compartments had an approximately 40 and 50% decrease in numbers when compared to wild-type controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). This pattern

of reduction in cell numbers matched that what we had previously observed at comparable stages of B-cell development on a BALB/c background [19]. However, unlike BALB/c IgHa.ΔD-iD mice where the absolute numbers of mature fraction F B cells in the bone marrow is halved when compared with those of wild-type; in C57BL/6 IgHa.ΔD-iD mice, the absolute numbers of fraction F B cells was fully normalized when compared with those from wild-type C57BL/6 control mice (p = 0.67) (Table 1). In order to distinguish between normalization of mature B-cell numbers due to the enhanced prevalence of B cells bearing IgM with charged, arginine-enriched CDR-H3s versus selection and increased survival for mature B cells that bear IgM with a more neutral CDR-H3 repertoire that could result from DH inversion or increased this website N addition (potential somatic

selection for “normality”); we evaluated 52 in-frame VDJCμ transcripts isolated from C57BL/6 ΔD-iD bone marrow fraction F B cells (Supporting Information Table 2). This permitted direct comparisons between the CDR-H3 loops of fraction F B cells using the same IgHa.ΔD-iD allele, but differing by C57BL/6 versus BALB/c genetic background. The pattern of reading frame usage, the prevalence of sequences lacking identifiable DH sequence, and the prevalence

of N addition was statistically indistinguishable between the IgHa.ΔD-iD repertoires expressed by the two mouse strains. Additionally, both the global prevalence of arginine, tyrosine, and valine in CDR-H3 and the relative distribution of CDR-H3 sequences containing one or more of these representative amino acids were statistically indistinguishable (Fig. 9A and B). The prevalence of neutral CDR-H3 loop sequences did not increase. To the contrary, the prevalence of highly charged and highly hydrophobic CDR-H3 loops in fraction F on the C57BL/6 background proved higher than on the BALB/c background (12.5% versus 9.2% and 3.8% versus 0; respectively) (Fig. 9C and D). We conclude that the normalization of IgHa.ΔD-iD fraction F B-cell numbers in C57BL/6 mice reflected an increase in the numbers Methane monooxygenase of mature, recirculating cells bearing both highly charged, arginine-enriched CDR-H3 loops and highly hydrophobic CDR-H3 loops (derived from alternative reading frames) when compared with those in BALB/c mice. Although the potential diversity of the CDR-H3 component of the immunoglobulin H-chain repertoire is astronomical, previous evaluation of the developing repertoire in BALB/c mice has allowed us and others to identify several key elements where there is strong evidence of either developmental or ontological constraints on this diversity (reviewed in [20]).

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