The deletion of Kgp also increased the biovolume, whereas no sign

The deletion of Kgp also increased the biovolume, whereas no significant change was observed in the Rgp mutants. These results support the above suggested roles; i.e., long fimbriae KPT-8602 are a facilitator, short fimbriae and Kpg are suppressors, whereas Rgp has dual functions, promoting peak formation and shearing the fibrillar microcolonies, in the initial phase of biofilm formation by P. gingivalis. Figure

2 Quantification of homotypic biofilms formed by P. gingivalis wild-type strain and mutants in PBS. Biofilms were formed as described in Figure 1, and 10 fields per a sample were randomly recorded and quantified with a CLSM. Z stacks of the x-y sections were converted to composite images to quantify each biovolume as described in the text. Standard error bars are shown. Statistical analysis was performed using a Scheffe test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 in comparison to the wild-type strain. P. gingivalis strains used in this assay are listed in Table 4. Microstructure under proliferation condition

Next, the roles of the fimbriae and gingipains were examined in the early maturation phase of biofilms, which is associated with an increase in biovolume mainly due to cell division and exopolysaccharide accumulation. Biofilm development was induced by culture in nutrient medium. Figure 3 shows various features of biofilms of the mutants incubated in dTSB for 24 hours. The wild type strain formed biofilms with a dense basal monolayer with dispersed microcolonies, similar to the PBS condition, but with more and taller peaks (Table 3). The long fimbria mutant KDP150 formed biofilms with Adenosine a thicker monolayer and with a greater number of the fine, taller peaks compared to wild type, (Figure 3 and Table 3). Those features suggested that long fimbriae have a role in suppression of the development

of an thickened basal layer, but trigger protruding peak formation in early maturation phase. The short fimbria mutant MPG67 formed significantly clustered biofilms consisted of tall and wide microcolonies, suggesting that short fimbriae negatively control the morphology of microcolonies, as mentioned above. The mutant lacking both types of fimbriae (MPG4167) also formed markedly thick and dense biofilms containing various size of microcolonies, suggesting that both types of fimbriae negatively regulate biofilm formation in early maturation phase. The Kgp mutant KDP129 formed large microcolonies which were well dispersed, whereas the Rgp mutant KDP133 made the most thick biofilms with the tallest acicular microcolonies (Figure 3 and Table 3). These findings suggested that Kgp suppresses microcolony expansion, whereas Rgp mediates transverse enlargement and restrains the longitudinal extension. As with the result in PBS, biofilms with the SHP099 manufacturer gingipain null mutant KDP136 showed different features from both KDP129 and KDP133. Table 3 Features of biofilms formed by P.

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