“Stem cells are the ultimate source of the rapidly self-re

“Stem cells are the ultimate source of the rapidly self-renewing corneal epithelium and are located in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium. Ocular surface defense mechanisms are important for the integrity of the ocular surface under normal and compromised conditions. A variety of diseases can compromise the stem cell selleck kinase inhibitor pool causing an entity called limbal stem cell deficiency. Clinical symptoms can range from foreign body sensation and glare up to blindness. The exact diagnosis is crucial for adequate therapeutic measures.”
“Zein, a corn protein, is a mixture of the polypeptides alpha-, gamma-, beta-, and delta-zein. alpha-Zein and gamma-zein comprise 70 -85% and

10-20% of total zein mass, respectively. Both peptides have similar amino acid composition, except gamma-zein is rich

in cysteine. The presence of cysteine has been associated with gelation of zein solutions. A common solvent for zein is aqueous ethanol. Preliminary results suggested that pH and ethanol content affect the rheology of zein solutions. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ethanol content (65-90%) and pH of the solvent (2, 6, and 12) on theological properties of zein solutions (20% w/w) containing gamma-zein. Steady shear tests and oscillatory time sweeps were performed to determine flow behavior and gelation time of zein solutions. Results indicated that alpha-zein IAP inhibitor solutions were nearly Newtonian while those containing gamma-zein showed shear thinning behavior. At high pH, gamma-zein increased the consistency index (K) and shortened gelation time. Results were attributed to the cysteine in gamma-zein. High pH promoted formation of disulfide bonds leading to higher K values and shorter gelation times. Results of this work are expected to be useful in the design of zein extraction processes and the development of new zein applications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Osteopontin

(OPN) is a matricellular glycoprotein that is markedly expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and in actinic keratoses implicating its role in photocarcinogenesis. Small molecule library cost Objective: To determine whether OPN facilitates the development of cSCC and its function. Methods: cSCCs development was compared between wild-type (WT) and OPN-null mice subjected to UVB irradiation for 43 weeks. UVB-induced OPN expression was determined by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Epidermal layer and TUNEL analyses assessed if OPN mediates UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia or suppresses UVB-induced apoptosis of basal keratinocytes, respectively. In vitro experiments determined whether OPN enhances cell survival of UVB-induced apoptosis and its potential mechanisms.

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