Socio-ecological researches, especially related to investigating

Socio-ecological researches, especially related to investigating human attitudes, have been at a disadvantage because of its often subjective nature but tools such as Q AZD8931 methodology provide a unique opportunity that allows for quantifying human subjectivity. Therefore, use of such methodologies should not be dictated by a discipline and instead, should be determined by the research question to be addressed. However, it is important to remember that while Q methodology is Nutlin-3a cost very useful to explore and classify the attitudes based on their similarities and differences, but its findings

cannot be extrapolated to the whole population. Three primary attitudes emerged, two of which were loaded almost completely by landowners and this reflects the diversity in attitudes on the subject even within the same stakeholder group. Therefore, it would be shortsighted to assume that all landowners have the same attitude toward biodiversity conservation on private land. Even though both the “Skeptic” and the “Uncertain” were loaded by JQ1 in vitro landowners, the latter is relatively more inclined toward biodiversity conservation. If conservation priority was to overlap with conservation opportunity,

then for two parcels of land with equal conservation priority, the one with the “Uncertain” holds a higher conservation opportunity than the one owned by the “Skeptic”. “Skeptics” are predominantly against private land conservation, mostly due to the fear of economic losses that they might have to bear. This fear stems from two reasons: first, the lack of actual financial incentives for private land conservation in Poland and second, the lack of communication and information dissemination on what conservation on private land entails. Financial incentives for conservation on private land in Poland is mostly limited to agricultural land only, the most popular program being the EU

Agri-Environment scheme which neither targets all land uses and nor does it focus on private land within protected areas. Without proper financial support mechanisms and tangible benefits, it would be difficult to covert a “Skeptic” into even an “Uncertain”. Also, the interviews conducted after each Q sort highlighted tuclazepam the need for a more accessible form of information dissemination at the community level to generate awareness on what conservation strategies such as Natura 2000 on private land actually entail. Most landowners were unaware or misinformed about regulations on private land within the boundaries of different types of protected areas. Scanning across all the stakeholder groups included in this study, we find a distinct dichotomy in the perception of the importance of private land conservation, with NGOs, government institutions and park officials at one end of the spectrum and the landowners at the other. This result may not be surprising, but it is yet another evidence of lack of good governance in protected area management.

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