Salt-sensitive FoxP2 neurons in the pre-locus coeruleus and PBel-inner were not c-Fos activated following blood pressure changes. In summary, the present study shows that the PBel-outer and PBcl subnuclei originate from two different neural progenitors,
contain glutamatergic neurons, and are affected by blood pressure changes, with the PBel-outer reacting to both hypo- and hypertension, and the Sonidegib ic50 PBcl signaling only hypotensive changes. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to determine whether multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNCT) are taken up by and are toxic to human intestinal enterocytes using the Caco-2 cell model. Caco-2 cells were exposed to 50 mu g/ml MWCNT (oxidized or pristine) for 24 h, and experiments were repeated in the presence of 2.5 mg/L natural organic matter. Cells displayed many of the properties that characterize VX-661 enterocytes, such as apical microvilli, basolateral
basement membrane, and glycogen. The cell monolayers also displayed tight junctions and electrical resistance. Exposure to pristine and oxidized MWCNT, with or without natural organic matter, did not markedly affect viability, which was assessed by measuring activity of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and staining with propidium iodide. Ultrastructural analysis revealed some damage to microvilli colocalized with
the MWCNT; however, neither type of MWCNT was taken up by Caco-2 cells. In contrast, pristine and oxidized MWCNT were taken up by the macrophage RAW 264.7 line. Our study suggests that intestinal enterocytes cells do not take up MWCNT.”
“The global demand for biomass for food, feed, biofuels, PR 171 and chemical production is expected to increase in the coming decades. Microalgae are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops. Production of microalgae has so far been limited to high-value applications. In order to realize large-scale production of microalgae biomass for low-value applications, new low-cost technologies are needed to produce and process microalgae. A major challenge lies in the harvesting of the microalgae, which requires the separation of a low amount of biomass consisting of small individual cells from a large volume of culture medium. Flocculation is seen as a promising low-cost harvesting method. Here, we overview the challenges and possible solutions for flocculating microalgae.”
“During exposure to anoxia, the crucian carp brain is able to maintain normal overall protein synthesis rates. However, it is not known if there are alterations in the synthesis or expression of specific proteins. This investigation addresses this issue by comparing the normoxic and anoxic brain proteome. Nine proteins were found to be reduced by anoxia.