Kidney International (2010) 77, 495-499; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.491; published online 16 December 2009″
“Bacteria use various means of RNA-mediated gene regulation. Regulatory RNAs include mRNA leaders that affect expression in cis or in trans, non-coding RNAs that trap regulatory proteins or interact with one or multiple target mRNAs, and RNAs that protect the bacteria against foreign and invasive DNA. The aim of this review is to outline the basic principles of bacterial RNA-mediated regulation, with a special focus on both cis-acting regulatory regions of mRNAs and antisense RNAs (asRNAs), and to give a brief overview
of selected examples of RNA-based technology that have paved the way for biotechnological applications.”
“Peristaltic waves of the ureteric smooth https://www.selleckchem.com/products/FK-506-(Tacrolimus).html muscles move urine Torin 2 down from the kidney, a process that is commonly defective in congenital diseases. To study the mechanisms that control the initiation and direction of contractions, we used video microscopy and optical mapping techniques and found that electrical and contractile waves began in a region where the renal pelvis joined the connective tissue core of the kidney. Separation of this pelvis-kidney junction from more distal urinary tract segments prevented downstream peristalsis, indicating that it housed the trigger for peristalsis. Moreover, cells in the pelvis-kidney junction were found to express isoform 3 of the
hyperpolarization-activated cation on channel family known to be required for initiating electrical activity in
the brain and heart. Immunocytochemical and real-time PCR analyses found that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 is expressed at the pelvis-kidney junction where electrical excitation and contractile waves originate. Inhibition of this channel caused a loss of electrical activity at the pelvis-kidney junction and randomized the origin of electrical activity in the urinary tract, thus markedly perturbing contractions. Collectively, our study demonstrates that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 channels play a fundamental role in coordinating proximal-to-distal peristalsis of the upper Adenosine triphosphate urinary tract. This provides insight into the genetic causes of common inherited urinary tract disorders such as reflux and obstruction. Kidney International (2010) 77, 500-508; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.483; published online 23 December 2009″
“Since its discovery in the late 1990s by Fire and Mello, RNA interference (RNAi) has proven a useful tool for scientists working in the fields of functional genomics, biotechnology, and therapeutic development. However, one of the obstacles of making small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the main effector of RNAi, a therapeutic agent includes the activation of the immune system, off-target effects, and competition with endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) for cellular miRNA-processing machinery.