“Introduction: Pediatric radial neck fractures represent 5-10% of all elbow fractures. Open reduction allows anatomic fracture selleck inhibitor fixation but compromises the vulnerable blood supply of the radial head. Intramedullary nailing combines the advantages of closed reduction and stable internal fracture fixation.\n\nMaterial and Methods: During a 6-year-period the medical records of all children sustaining a radial neck fracture treated operatively at our
institution were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Forty-two patients with dislocated fractures of the radial neck were treated with intramedullary nailing. The average age of the patients was 8 years. Thirty-eight patients (90%) could be treated with closed fracture reduction and retrograde nailing. Open fracture reduction was required in 4 (10%) patients, and in 2 patients necrosis
of the radial head occurred. Loss of reduction was seen in 7 (17%) patients. Excellent results were found in 38 patients, good results in 2 patients, and poor results in another 2.\n\nConclusion: The retrograde nailing technique for the treatment of dislocated fractures of the radial neck in pediatric patients is a simple, short and safe procedure.”
“Background: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implied in the pathophysiology Captisol datasheet of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor is associated with the regulation of motor function and mood. Objective: To assess regional 5-HT2A receptor expression in unmedicated patients with de novo PD. Methods: Eight de novo, drug naive patients with PD and eight healthy control subjects underwent a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan with the highly selective 5-HT2A radioligand I-123-5-I-R91150. Results: In de novo PD patients 5-HT2A receptor binding
was significantly reduced in the anterior striatum and the premotor cortex in PD patients compared to controls. In addition, occipital binding was elevated in PD patients. No changes in 5-HT2A receptor binding were found in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. Conclusion: In de novo PD patients, 5-HT2A receptor expression is changed in key areas of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit and occipital cortex. This suggests altered 5-HT neurotransmission selleck chemicals to contribute to development of PD motor and non-motor symptoms.”
“A significant variation in the metastatic pattern among breast cancer patients exists. Clinical observations suggest that these differences are related to time to recurrence (TTR), thus suggesting a common systemic growth signal at the time of surgery. Our goal was to identify a marker for synchronized growth of micrometastases. To quantify the metastatic pattern at first relapse, 180 patients with metastatic breast cancer were studied. Standard deviation (SD) of lesions size and lesion number was calculated and served as a marker for variation.