In fact,

In fact, RGFP966 nmr many authors demonstrated the efficiency of FISH methodology for the analysis of lactobacilli and G. vaginalis[6, 10,

32, 34, 44–47]. However, the herein described multiplex approach may be the simpler to perform and still has high ARN-509 datasheet specificity for lactobacilli and G. vaginalis detection. As shown in Table 1, the Lac663 and Gard162 probes bound highly specific to each target strain. Only Lac663 showed cross-hybridization with S. thermophilus B. However, S. thermophilus coccus morphology allows a clear differentiation from Lactobacillus spp., which has a rod-shaped morphology (with the exception of L. iners). Importantly, the Lac663 probe did not hybridize with several bacterial species from the Bacilli class and also with other common vaginal pathogenic bacteria, providing further evidence of its usefulness for Lactobacillus spp. detection in clinical samples. Furthermore, Selleckchem LGK974 the Gard162 probe showed hybridization with all G. vaginalis strains and no cross-hybridization was observed to other species, including other related pathogenic bacteria which may be present in the vaginal microflora, such as A. vaginae, P. bivia, M. mulieris and F. nucleatum (see Table 1). It is worth to mention that in silico analysis of the Gard162 probe only identified one non-target strain as match, more precisely

Bifidobacterium indicum HM534842 (RDPII ID: S002908348). However, B. indicum is not a common bacterium from vaginal microflora, as it is usually present in the gut [48]. Recently a strong association between the bacterial loads in the vagina and rectum of pregnant women was described [49]. Although some gut bacteria such as Escherichia coli[48] have been associated with vaginal infections, B. indicum has not been described as a pathogenic bacterium [50]. The FISH efficiency and hybridization quality for the Gard162 probe, either alone or together with the Lac663 probe, confirmed the applicability of these two probes together in a multiplex

PNA-FISH (see Figures 1 and 2). As shown in Table 2, sensitivity and specificity equations allowed the comparison between our PNA probes and other published ones for G. vaginalis detection. For the Lactobacillus Adenosine probe, this comparison had already been performed [26] and the Lac663 theoretical performance was found to be similar to other probes reported for Lactobacillus genus detection, but with a highest specificity. Also, Lab158, LGC354 and PNA Burton et al. [31] probes were found to cross-hybridize with one strain (RDPII ID: S000536416) from G. vaginalis, which might be incompatible with a multiplex approach to be used in vaginal samples. On the other hand, it is possible that this G. vaginalis strain was a misidentified L. iners strain, because confusion between both species has been reported [51]. Gard162 theoretical performance in specificity (100 %) was found to be similar to other probes for G.

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