Further studies may clarify the significance of and mechanisms un

Further studies may clarify the significance of and mechanisms underlying individual differences in awake rcSO(2) and the changes that occur in rcSO(2) while asleep.”
“Late-phase long-term depression (L-LTD) in middle-aged mice has been difficult to achieve

and maintain. Here we report an electrically induced, homosynaptic, input-specific form of LTD that could be stably maintained for at least 4 h in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices of 10-14 months old mice. This form of L-LTD was similar in magnitude in aged, middle-aged and young mice and was blocked by high concentrations of broad-spectrum N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as D(-)-2-amino-5-phospho-pentanoic check details acid (D-AP5) and (R)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP). Extracellular and whole cell recordings revealed a decreased sensitivity to D-AP5 with age, without any differences in NMDAR conductance between the age groups tested. This L-LTD could be inhibited neither by common doses of NMDA-subunit specific antagonists like zinc, ifenprodil and Ro-25-6981, nor by various co-applications of these compounds. In addition to the lack of any GluN2 subunit bias, L-LTD did not show any discernible involvement of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. In conclusion, our results

do not support any specific role of NMDAR subunits in LTD. (C) Torin 1 molecular weight 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives. We aimed to examine the effects of 2 factors of familism (Familial Obligations and Expected Support from the Family) and Cultural Justification on caregivers’ mental and physical health as mediated by coping style.

Methods. We used a probability sample of 95 African American and 65 White family caregivers for people with dementia to test hypotheses based on the updated sociocultural stress and coping model using path analysis. Main outcome measures however included depressive symptomatology, various psychological symptoms, and subjective physical health.

Results. Both Familial Obligations and Cultural Justification had an indirect effect on poor mental health and subjective physical health via avoidant coping. Expected Support

from the Family had no effect on caregivers’ health outcomes.

Discussion. These findings suggest that feelings of obligation may be accounting for a significant proportion of the negative effects of familism on caregivers’ mental and subjective physical health. Expectations of familial social support may be relatively inconsequential in this process.”
“Objectives. Implicit skill learning underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills; ills therefore an important aspect of life from infancy to old age. We studied aging effects on the time course of implicit skill consolidation.

Methods. Young and elderly adults performed a probabilistic implicit sequence-learning task before and after a 12-. a 24-hr, and a 1-week interval.

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