Figure 4 illustrates that bench throw power also significantly im

Figure 4 illustrates that bench throw power also significantly improved following 14 days of B supplementation on both D1 and D2 testing. Figure 4 Individual (n = 12) and mean responses for bench throw Barasertib chemical structure power (W, Watts) on the two days before (PreDay) and after (PostDay, 14 days) placebo and betaine supplementation. * = p < 0.05 from corresponding betaine PreDay value, # = p < 0.05 from corresponding placebo PostDay value. Similar to the back squat, there were no significant differences between the P and B trials in the total number of bench press repetitions performed at 85% of 1 RM until fatigue. These values are presented in Table 2. Table 2 Total number of

repetitions to fatigue in the bench press during the two days before and after supplementation (n = 12)   Placebo Betaine Pre-Testing 12 ± 1 10 ± 1 Day 1     Pre-Testing 12 ± 2 12 ± 1 Day 2     Post-Testing 13 ± 1 11 ± 1 Day 1     Post-Testing 13 ± 1 11 ± 1 Day 2     Hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dL), and plasma osmolality (mOsm/kg) were significantly greater at post-squat (49 ± 1, 15.7 ± 1.0, 303 ± 4, respectively) and immediately after REC (48 ± 1, 16.0 ± 1.0, 303 ± 3, respectively)

compared to pre-exercise values (43 ± 1, 14.3 ± 0.8, 289 ± 3, respectively) during D1 and D2 testing, but these values were not significantly click here different between the P and B trials. Plasma glucose was not different before P or B supplementation (5.1 ± 0.6 and 5.0 ± 0.7 mmol/L, respectively) or at any time in response to the REC protocol (averaging 5.1 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.8 mmol/L, respectively) after P or B supplementation. As expected, plasma lactate showed significant increases above average pre exercise (1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L) values throughout the REC protocol on both D1 and D2 testing days, and this increase (8.7 ± 2.2 and 8.8 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively) was the same for P and B exercise testing sessions. Discussion There is an increased interest in the study Carbachol of betaine as an ergogenic supplement for the neuromuscular system. In the current study, the primary effect of the betaine supplement was observed in the upper body, with enhanced bench press force and power

production, but no change in the dynamic squat exercise performances. Additionally, the improvements in the bench press performances were observed on D2, demonstrating the efficacy of betaine as a potential aid to recovery. This is in contrast to the recent findings by Hoffman et al. [6] who demonstrated improvements in squat exercise endurance (i.e., number of repetitions to failure at 90% of the 1 RM yet not at 75% of the 1RM), but no changes in these measures in the bench press or for the lower body Wingate test. This disparity in results is likely due to a host of differences in the study design and dependent variables. Firstly, we utilized a within versus between group experimental design allowing greater control of statistical variance.

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