Copyright (c) 2008 S Karger AG, Basel”
“A relatively inexpe

Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A relatively inexpensive protocol for the detection of genomic components of whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses in symptomatic legumes in the field is described. The method involves extraction with a modified CTAB buffer containing beta-mercaptoethanol upto

5% and sodium chloride concentration from 1.4 to 2.0M. Using this method PCR amplifiable DNA could be extracted from mature leaves of legume hosts rich in polyphenols, tannins and polysaccharides. The non-coding region and full-length LCL161 in vivo DNA A, DNA B components of yellow mosaic viruses were consistently amplifiable from 97 samples, Out of 136 tested in PCR reaction, employing primers specific for intergenic regions and full-length genome. The system is robust and the protocol is useful for the detection and identification of begomoviruses infecting grain legumes. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: There is overwhelming evidence that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system plays a major role in depression and cardiovascular disease in genetically susceptible individuals. We hypothesized that due to the multiple interactions between the sympathetic and the HPA systems via adrenoceptors, polymorphisms in these genes could have an impact on HPA axis activity in major depression. Methods: Using selleck chemical the dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing

Sitaxentan hormone (DEX/CRH) test, we investigated the association of alpha 2-adrenoceptor (ADRA2A -1291C -> G) and the beta 2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2 Arg16Gly) in 189 patients with major depression during the acute state of the disease and after remission. Results: Male ADRA2A -1291G allele homozygotes showed significant pretreatment HPA axis hyperactivity, with increased adrenocorticotropin (ACTH; F = 4.9, d.f. = 2, p = 0.009) and cortisol responses (F = 6.4, d.f. = 2, p = 0.003). In contrast, female ADRB2 Arg/Arg homozygotes had increased pretreatment ACTH (F = 7.17, d.f. = 2, p = 0.001)

and cortisol (F = 8.95, d.f. = 2, p = 0.000) levels. Interestingly, in the respective genotypes, the stress hormones remained elevated in the second DEX/CRH test, despite a reduction in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that, depending on gender and polymorphisms, there is continuous HPA axis overdrive in a proportion of patients irrespective of the status of depression. Considering the importance of stress hormones for cardiovascular disorders, our data might suggest that these patients are at high risk of comorbidity between depression and cardiovascular disorders. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A quantitative and multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) along with plant mRNA, which serves as an internal control to ascertain RNA extraction quality.

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