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“We studied the reflex actions of the cutaneous afferents innervating the trunk
to hindlimb motoneurons in the spinal cat using an intracellular recording technique. Stimulation of the trunk Cutaneous afferents entering into the L2-L5 spinal segment produced different types of polysynaptic potentials in hindlimb motoneurons via polysynaptic neuronal pathways. The trunk Cutaneous afferents predominantly caused excitatory PSPs in the flexor motoneurons and inhibitory PSPs in the extensor motoneurons. The size and latency of polysynaptic potentials were related to the proximity of the spinal segments of the nerves stimulated to the spinal segments of motoneurons. These Findings suggest that the neuronal pathways from trunk cutaneous afferents to hindlimb motoneurons play all important role in coordinating between the trunk and hindlimbs.”
“To investigate seasonal changes in transcript levels of flowering-related genes corresponding to shoot condition, the endogenous expression patterns of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), LEAFY (LFY), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), and CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) homologs were investigated in evergreen azalea
‘Oomurasaki’. In this plant, in which the floral transition is triggered by the about 25 degrees C and shortening days of summer under natural conditions, the mRNA levels of ACY-738 the FT. SOC1, and LFY homologs (RpFT, RpSOC1, and RpLFY) increased in August corresponding to the period of flower bud formation, and the mRNA levels of TFL1 and CEN homologs (RpTFL1 and RpCEN) increased https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html during July before flower bud formation. RpTFL1 showed low transcript levels during the period of flower bud formation and development, but RpCEN showed a different
expression pattern from RpTEL1. The expression of RpCEN, RpSOC1, and RpLFY peaked again during January corresponding to the period of flower bud dormancy. During blooming in May, the expression levels of all the investigated genes were low. In the period of flower bud formation. RpFT expression started to increase, and the expression of RpSOC1 peaked in mid-July. These results suggest that the shoot apical meristem (SAM) starts to transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in mid-July. Thus, changes in the transcription of RpFT, RpSOC1, and RpLFY were found to correlate positively with seasonal flowering in the shoot apex of ‘Oomurasaki’. whereas changes in RpTFL1 and RpCEN transcription correlated negatively with seasonal flowering. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The purpose of this case series is to report on the effects of passive joint mobilization (PJM) of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function in elderly participants with secondary carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (CMC OA).