(C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Prey animals often need to learn the identity of unknown predators, and not surprisingly, nearby conspecifics provide a rich source of information about both the identity and risk level posed by unknown predators. Individuals that learn from watching conspecifics that show a weak response to a predator often learn that the predator
is a mild threat, while those that observe conspecifics that show a strong response to the predator, learn that the predator is a high-level threat. This means that any factor that influences the intensity of the antipredator response of the tutor can potentially Alvocidib influence the efficacy of information transfer to the observer. We know that food resources influence the activity levels of prey, making them more or less conspicuous to nearby conspecifics. We also know that prey often ignore risk if they have restricted access to food resources. This means that food resources have the potential
to dramatically change social learning dynamics. In the present study, we found that tadpoles fed restricted diets www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-06463922.html had much higher activity levels than those fed ad libitum food resources. Their high activity made them more conspicuous to nearby conspecifics, causing them to be much more efficient as tutors. Our work highlights the dynamic nature of social learning, as information transfer is likely to change considerably from place to place and year to year as resources change through space and time. (C) 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of one-view digital breast tomosynthesis versus two-view full-field digital mammography (FFDM) alone, and versus a combined reading of both
modalities.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS. The datasets of one-view digital breast tomosynthesis and two-view FFDM of abnormal mammograms in 144 consecutive women admitted for diagnostic workup with clinical signs and symptoms (n = 78) or recalled from screening (n = 66) were read alone and in a combined setting. The malignant or benign nature of the lesions was established by histologic analysis of biopsied lesions or by 12-16-month follow-up.\n\nRESULTS. BTK inhibitor screening library Eighty-six of the 144 patients were found to have breast cancer. The BI-RADS categories for one-view digital breast tomosynthesis were significantly better than those for two-view FFDM (p < 0.001) and were equal to those of the combined reading in both women admitted for diagnostic workup and women recalled from screening. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of digital breast tomosynthesis were superior to those of FFDM in fatty and dense breasts overall and in women admitted for diagnostic workup and in women recalled from screening.