Although caffeine has been suggested to augment strength and powe

Although caffeine has been suggested to augment strength and power performance by enhancing excitation – contraction coupling during neuromuscular transmission through mobilizing intracellular calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

[13] and/or by enhancing the kinetics of glycolytic regulatory enzymes such as phosphorylase Selleckchem Rabusertib [12], evidence demonstrating its ergogenic benefit during anaerobic performance is limited. To maximize the effectiveness of caffeine, supplements often contain several ingredients that attempt to exacerbate its stimulatory potential. The combination of ephedra and caffeine had been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid [14], however, the multitude of adverse events associated with ephedra led to this supplement being removed from the sport supplement market [15, 16]. As a result, other ingredients that stimulate β-adrenergic receptors albeit with a lower risk for adverse events have been combined with caffeine

with the desire to enhance athletic performance either by improving metabolic or muscle contraction efficiency, or find more perhaps by enhancing subjective feelings of energy, focus or awareness. The results of this study indicate that the combination of ingredients comprising Redline Extreme™ were effective in providing a greater stimulatory response as reflected by higher self-perceived check details levels of focus, energy and awareness and an enhanced reaction to visual and audio stimuli. The combination of these stimulatory ingredients though was unable to augment anaerobic power performance. The combination of yohimbine, evodiamine, hordenine, tyramine, tyrosine and caffeine appear to be the primary ingredients providing the stimulatory effect from Methisazone Redline Extreme®. Yohimbine is a selective α-adrenoceptor antagonist that is also reported to be effective in enhancing lipid metabolism [17, 18]. Evodiamine is a major alkaloid from evodia fruits that has been reported

to stimulate vanilloid receptor activities comparable to capsaicin (compound found in hot peppers) [19]. Research on evodiamine is limited, but it has been shown to increase core body temperature [20]. Hordenine is also an alkaloid and is found in grains, sprouting barley and certain grasses, as well as in small quantities in citrus aurantium [21]. Citrus aurantium is a mild stimulant that is often used in nutritional supplements to suppress appetite and enhance metabolic rate [22]. Tyramine is a monoamine compound that is derived from the amino acid tyrosine. It is an indirect sympathomimetic, meaning that it does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but acts as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase prolonging the actions of adrenergic transmitters [23]. Tyrosine is a precursor for the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine [24]. Its role is to enhance neurotransmitter synthesis that has important β-adrenergic stimulatory effect.

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