All stages of the parasite were observed at lower concentrations

All stages of the parasite were observed at lower concentrations (2 and 8 μM) at various levels, but only trophozoites were observed at higher concentrations (32 and 128 μM) (Figure  2). Figure 2 Effect of TTM on growth of synchronized P. falciparum parasites. Synchronized parasites at the ring stage were VS-4718 in vivo cultured in GFSRPMI for 28 h in the presence of graded concentrations of TTM. Each developmental selleck chemicals stage was counted after Giemsa staining. Levels of parasitemia were 5.33 ± 0.15 (0 μM TTM), 4.93 ± 0.12 (2 μM), 3.75 ± 0.24 (8 μM), 3.69 ± 0.26 (32 μM), and 3.23 ± 0.26 (128 μM). The morphology of the trophozoites observed in the presence of higher concentrations of TTM and the schizonts

in the absence of TTM is shown above graph. To determine the location of target copper-binding proteins that are involved in the growth arrest of OICR-9429 purchase the parasite, and to study the role of TTM in the interaction between parasites and RBCs, an approach was applied in which PfRBCs and RBCs were treated separately and then mixed. PfRBCs at higher than 5% parasitemia were treated with TTM for 0.5 h and 2.5 h at room temperature. After washing, PfRBCs and uninfected RBCs were mixed at ratios of more than 1:10, and cultured in GFSRPMI for 95 h (two cycles). P. falciparum that had been pretreated with TTM showed profound growth arrest, even after a short period of treatment such as 0.5 h (Figure  3a). The inhibition

was dose dependent. However, treatment of uninfected RBCs caused growth arrest to a lesser extent,

and only at higher see more concentrations of TTM (80 μM and 320 μM) and with longer periods of treatment (2.5 h) (Figure  3b). Similar results were shown with cultures in CDRPMI. These results implied that, although TTM affects copper-binding proteins in RBCs, the target molecule(s) for TTM that are involved in the growth arrest of the parasite may occur predominantly in P. falciparum. Furthermore, TTM may react irreversibly with the copper-binding proteins of the parasite, or the parasites may take up TTM that remains even after washing, from RBCs. Figure 3 Growth of P. falciparum co-cultured with PfRBCs and RBCs that were pretreated separately with TTM. Synchronized PfRBCs at the ring stage and RBCs were treated with graded concentrations of TTM for 0.5 h or 2.5 h at room temperature. After washing, both treated PfRBCs and RBCs were mixed (pretreated PfRBCs plus non-treated RBCs (a) or non-treated PfRBCs plus pretreated RBCs (b)) at a ratio of more than 10 times RBCs to PfRBCs and cultured in GFSRPMI for 95 h; (*) indicates a significant difference versus no treatment with TTM (0). Effect of copper chelators on growth of P. falciparum The effect of copper ions on the growth of P. falciparum was examined by adding copper chelators to the CDRPMI culture. The chelators employed included two intracellular chelators, Neocuproine and Cuprizone, and one extracellular chelator, BCS.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>