0%, 63 6%, 50 4% and 87 3% respectively (Table 3) However, looki

0%, 63.6%, 50.4% and 87.3% respectively (Table 3). However, looking closer to the genus and species identification, differences between dermatophytes and Candida spp. were evident. Almost all dermatophytes which were positive

in culture could be identified by multiplex PCR (Table 3) achieving diagnostic sensitivities of more than 87.3% at the species and more than 88.6% at the genus level. In contrast to this finding, only 62.7% of culture positive Candida spp. were identified by selleck kinase inhibitor multiplex PCR. Furthermore, multiplex PCR revealed positive results with samples which were negative in culture. Especially, 38 T. rubrum and 12 T. interdigitale were additionally identified (Table 4). DNA preparations from these dermatophyte positive samples were amplified in multiplex PCR 2 by a genus- and a species-specific primer pair (Fig. 1b). The results for dermatophytes were further confirmed by other monoplex PCR using primer pairs as described in literature (data not shown).[1, 20-22] Taking into account that only 44.8% of microscopically positive samples could be confirmed by culture, the best reference standard

for truly positive samples is combining samples being positive in direct microscopy, culture or by both methods.[23] When applying this criterion, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 87.3%, Cobimetinib 94.3%, 87.3% and 94.3%, respectively, were calculated for dermatophytes (T. rubrum, T. interdigitale and E. floccosum). The corresponding values for Candida spp. were Nabilone 62.7%, 93.5%, 77.8% and 87.4% respectively. The sample which was positive for Mucor spp. in culture was clearly genotyped as T. rubrum. Likewise, all samples which yielded Cryptococcus spp. or Trichosporum spp. by microbial growth were detected positive in multiplex PCR due to their companion fungus for which they were positive in culture, too. According to the geographical area, there are different characteristics and significant changes in epidemiology of dermatomycoses within the last decades.[1-3] In a recent study, Nenoff

et al. [5, 24] reported on the prevalence of onychomycosis pathogens isolated between 2008 and 2009 in eastern states of Germany. Our culture and multiplex PCR results are with regard to dermatophytes and S. brevicaulis in close agreement with the findings of these authors (Table 4). However, Candida spp. were detected in our study more frequently. This may be explained by the heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations within our study which besides onychomycosis also included mucosal and other skin infections. A predominance of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans was shown in candidal cultures and reflected the outcome of other published studies about superficial and mucosal candidoses.[8-10, 25] An accurate and rapid detection of fungi is most important for the success of treatment of dermatomycoses as clinical symptoms are shared with many other skin diseases.

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