Despite evidence for a direct renal pathogenic role of HIV [2,3]

Despite evidence for a direct renal pathogenic role of HIV [2,3] only one study has observed an association between high VL and RI [23], an observation we did not replicate. The association of undetectable VL with RI, found in only one of the multivariate models, is contra-intuitive and very likely reflects the potential deleterious effect of some ARV drugs as discussed further on. We did not demonstrate

the beneficial effect of ARV therapy on renal function overall (mainly by decreasing Selisistat datasheet HIVAN), as has been suggested in other studies [6,7], although the observation of the association of ORs with RI and exposure to some ARV drugs is in favour of a protective (OR<1) renal impact

of NNRTIs and PIs other than IDV (Tables 1 and 2). Conversely, we identified an association of the cumulative use, even short (i.e. a few months), of other ARV drugs (IDV and tenofovir) with renal function impairment. In accordance with other reports [9,14,24–28], our results indicate an association of mild RI with the use of tenofovir. In an additional analysis where current use of tenofovir was added to the model, we found a statistical association between this latter variable but not with cumulative exposure PF-01367338 molecular weight to the drug. Our results could thus support the hypothesis that tenofovir use may result in functional renal tubular deficits, which could normalize after withdrawal of the drug, but not necessarily in structural defects [29]. A recent report showed Resminostat a mild but significant difference between change from baseline of the glomerular filtration rate (CG formula) in patients treated for 3 years with tenofovir as compared with those receiving the control drug (−2 vs.+5 mL/min) [30]. This study population was nevertheless quite different from an unselected cohort as data came from clinical trials including patients whose median age was younger (36 years),

and with few baseline renal abnormalities and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Our data that showed an association of tenofovir use and mild (but not advanced) RI in routine practice are not contradictory with these clinical trial results. We can nevertheless conclude that some factors favouring renal function impairment have to be taken into account before starting tenofovir use either to consider an alternative ARV drug or to lead to a closer monitoring of renal function: pre-existing RI, recent or concomitant use of nephrotoxic drugs or didanosine (which increases tenofovir plasma concentration), diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure [9,17,29,30,31]. One study showed also the deleterious effect of the co-prescription of boosted PIs [32]. In our study, IDV was associated with advanced RI.

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