The wide spectrum of L monocytogenes host resistance in differen

The wide spectrum of L. monocytogenes host resistance in different inbred mouse strains is controlled by multiple genetic loci and complex interactions of different alleles impact on the overall phenotype of resistance or susceptibility towards buy WH-4-023 Listeria[43]. Importantly, the differences in host resistance to oral Lmo-InlA-mur-lux infection, that have been investigated

in this study across the four inbred strains, are unlikely to be causatively linked to polymorphisms in the E-cadherin gene. Although A/J and BALB/cJ mice carry private missense polymorphisms in Cdh1, the underlying coding changes (R6H, P267A, P267Q, F272S, A636G) are unlikely to impact on the function of the protein. Provean selleck predictions indicated that these changes would be well tolerated and would not alter the function of the protein [44]. Classic genetic studies carried out almost 30 years ago by using recombinant inbred mouse strains identified the Hc locus as a contributor to listeriosis susceptibility in A/J mice. The Hc locus

encodes the C5 complement protein and A/J mice have a C5 deficiency due to a two base pair intragenic deletion in the Hc hemolytic complement gene [41, 45, 46]. Consequently, A/J mice are relatively inefficient at recruiting inflammatory effector cells such as neutrophils and macrophages to the site of infection [47, 48]. Differential host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection in BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6ByJ mice has been

found to be genetically controlled by the Listr1 and Listr2 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mouse chromosomes 5 and 13, respectively [38]. Although, the underlying genes and molecular mechanisms of these QTLs in controlling L. monocytogenes host resistances have not been unravelled yet, it has been PCI-34051 demonstrated recently that a polymorphism in intron 5 of the interferon regulatory factor 3 gene (Irf3) on mouse chromosome 7 in the ByJ substrain of the C57BL/6 inbred strains contributes to Listeria host resistance of STK38 C57BL/6ByJ mice [22]. We have identified C3HeB/FeJ mice to be extremely susceptible to oral L. monocytogenes infection. C3HeB/FeJ were found to be sensitive to Lmo-InlA-mur-lux and Lmo-EGDx-lux infections, although Lmo-InlA-mur-lux showed also enhanced virulence in this mouse strain. The increased host susceptibility of C3HeB/FeJ mice correlated with high bacterial burdens in the small intestine, MLNs and deep organs and was associated with massively elevated inflammatory responses when compared to the other investigated inbred mouse strains. C3HeB/FeJ mice developed necrotic lesions in the spleen and liver in the early phase of the infection, and the size and number of these lesions correlated with listeriosis severity and mortality.

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