The multi-copper oxidase copA gene is located in plasmids in the

The multi-copper oxidase copA gene is located in plasmids in the four Sphingomonas and Stenotrophomonas strains suggesting that MGEs may spread Cu-resistance determinants in these soils.

This study contributes to the understanding of the effect of long-term HIF inhibitor Cu-pollution on the bacterial community of agricultural soils and to the characterization of novel Cu-resistant bacterial isolates from agricultural soils from the Aconcagua valley. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from USM 131109, 13948 and 130836 (MS), FONDECYT 1110992 and 1070507 (MS), FONDECYT 3090071 (CY) and Center of Nanotechnology and Systems Biology (MS, FA). LAR acknowledges a MECESUP FSM0710 postdoctoral fellowship. FA and GB acknowledge

CONICYT PhD fellowships. References 1. Rensing C, Grass Elafibranor G: Escherichia coli mechanisms of copper homeostasis in a changing environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2003, 27:197–213.PubMedCrossRef 2. Solioz M, Stoyanov JV: Copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae . FEMS Microbiol Rev 2003, 27:183–195.PubMedCrossRef 3. De Gregori I, Fuentes E, Rojas M, Pinochet H, Potin-Gautier M: Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile. J Environ Monit 2003, 5:287–295.PubMedCrossRef 4. Tembo BD, Sichilongo K, Cernak J: Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia. Chemosphere 2006, 63:497–501.PubMedCrossRef 5. Salami IR, Rahmawati S, Sutarto RI, Jaya PM: Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish in cage aquaculture at Cirata reservoir, Atorvastatin West Java, Indonesia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008, 1140:290–296.PubMedCrossRef 6. Jernström J, Lehto J, MK-4827 solubility dmso Dauvalter VA, Hatakka A, Leskinen A, Paatero J: Heavy metals in bottom sediments of lake Umbozero in Murmansk region, Russia. Environ Monit Assess 2010, 161:93–105.PubMedCrossRef 7. Mudd GM, Patterson J: Continuing pollution from

the Rum Jungle U-Cu project: a critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation. Environ Pollut 2010, 158:1252–1260.PubMedCrossRef 8. Hao X, Zhou D, Wang Y, Shi F, Jiang P: Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in edible parts of four commonly grown crops in two contaminated soils. Int J Phytoremediat 2011, 13:289–301.CrossRef 9. Ranjard L, Echairi A, Nowak V, Lejon D, Nouaim R, Chaussod R: Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils. FEMS Microb Ecol 2006, 58:303–315.CrossRef 10. Giller KE, Witter E, McGrath SP: Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 1998, 30:1389–1414.CrossRef 11.

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