“Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection from

“Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection from food or water often results in severe diarrheal disease and is a leading cause of death globally. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted from E. coli induce lethality in mice. The omptin outer membrane protease OmpT from E. coli inactivates antimicrobial peptides and may enhance colonization of the uroepithelium, but its precise function remains

unclear. Given OmpT is an outer membrane protease, we hypothesized it may have a role in OMV biogenesis. To further characterize the effect of OmpT on OMV production, a genetic approach using wild type, an ompT deletion mutant and an ompT overexpressing construct in EHEC were employed. ompT gene deletion markedly decreased OMV production and stainable lipid but increased vesicle diameter. Conversely, ompT overexpression profoundly increased OMV biogenesis

but decreased stainable lipid, protein Ibrutinib mouse content, and vesicle diameter. Alterations in EHEC ompT gene expression have an impact on the biogenesis, Small molecule library ic50 composition, and size of OMVs. Changes in ompT gene expression may dynamically alter OMV formation, composition, and diameter in response to different host environments and contribute to cell-free intercellular communication to enhance bacterial growth and survival. “
“Clostridium difficile is an important bacterial pathogen of humans and a variety of animal species, where it can cause significant medical problems. The major public health concern is the possibility of inapparent animal reservoirs of C. difficile and shedding of bacteria to noninfected individuals or populations, as well as being a source of food contamination. Migrating birds can be a key epizootiological factor for transmission and distribution of pathogens over a wide geographic range. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether migrating passerine birds can be a source of spread of C. difficile along their migration routes. Cloacal samples were taken

from 465 passerine birds during their migration Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) south over the Alps. Selective enrichment was used for detection of C. difficile. Clostridium difficile was not isolated from any of the samples, which indicates that migrating passerine birds are unlikely to serve as a reservoir and a carrier of C. difficile. Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus (Hall & O’Toole, 1935). It is an important pathogen of humans and a variety of animal species, including companion and farm animals (Borriello et al., 1983; O’Neill et al., 1993; Songer et al., 2000; Weese et al., 2001a, b; Kiss & Bilkei, 2005; Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2006; Keel et al., 2007), where it is recognized as an important cause of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea and enteritis/colitis syndrome (Poutanen & Simor, 2004). A major public health concern is the possibility of inapparent animal reservoirs of C. difficile and shedding of bacteria by clinically normal animals (Weese, 2010).

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